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Neuro: 1-Reticular

USCSOM: Neuroanatomy: 1-Reticular Formation

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 zones of the RF? Midline, Medial, Lateral
Describe the midline zone. called the "raphe"; neurotransmitter is serotonin
Describe the medial zone. outputs of the RF; large neurons
Describe the lateral zone. projects axons to the medial zone; small cells
What is the normal neurotransmitter in the RF neuron? ACh
What are the 3 general functions of the RF? Motor fxn, Visceral fxn, Consciousness
Where is the origin of the reticulospinal tract? medial zone of RF; pons and medulla
What is the course of the reticulospinal tract? ventral and lateral funiculi of spinal cord
What is the termination of the reticulospinal tract? mostly ipsilateral; medial ventral horn and intermediate gray
What are 2 fxns of the reticulospinal tract? maintain posture; produce gross body movements
What kind of signals are in visceral center projections to the spinal cord? preganglionic symp and parasymp
What kind of signals are sent to the brainstem from the visceral centers? GVE and SVE nuclei of cranial nerves
What is the most important clinical function of the RF? regulation of sonsciousness
What is the ARAS? ascending reticular activating system
What is the origin of the reticulothalamic tract? medial zone of the RF
What is the course of the reticulothalamic tract? central tegmental tract CTT
What is the termination of the reticulothalamic tract? intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus
What tract gives widespread activation of the cortex? thalamocortical projections
What activates ARAS? somatosensory from lateral spinothalamic tract; visual, auditory, visceral
What are some causes of lesions in the RF? vascular lesions/tumors in brain stem; uncal herniation; tonsilar herniation
What are some signs of lesions to the RF? disturbances of consciousness; changes in mm tone and postural reflexes; visceral dysfunction to cardio/respiratory
What are the 3 monoaminergic systems found in the RF? serotonin, NE, Dopamine
What are the ascending and descending fxns of the serotonergic pathway? desc: pain inhibition; asc; sleep and mood
Where does the serotonergic pathway originate? midline raphe
Where do the serotonergic neurons project to? cerebral hemisphere (sleep/mood); spinal cord (analgesia)
What are the fxns of the ascending NorEpi pathways? mood, attention, memory
Where does the NorEpi pathway originate from? locus ceruleus in upper pons
Where do the dopaminergic neurons originate? substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area
Where does the substantia nigra project to? caudate and putamen
Where does the ventral tegmental area project to? forebrain areas; amygdala, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens
Excess dopamine release in prefrontal cortex and amygdala is associated with what disorder? schizophrenia
What are the two pathways and associated fxns with the dopaminergic pathways nigrostriatal: motor; mesolimbic: behavior and emotion
Created by: jlellerm