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exam review

Endocrinology study of the endocrine system, hormones, diseases, and disorders
the nervous system and endocrine system are the 2 main systems that control and co-ordinate body functions and homeostasis, hypothalamus & pituitary glands form the link between the 2 systems
how does the body regulate hormone levels negative feedback by hemoral control, neural cavity, hormonal control
exocrine and what they secrete secrete via ducts into localized area's Eg: sweat
endocrine and what they secrete secrete directly into bloodsteam eg: insulin, glucagon, estrogen
5 functions of endocrine system regulates: growth, reproduction, basal metabolism, salt & H2O use, help cope with stress
Hormones chemical messengers, help regulate tissue and organ activity via bloodstream
3 effects of hormones affects metabolic rate, manufacture of proteins, change cell permeability
hyposecretions below normal secretions
hypersecretions above normal secretions
Prostaglandins "localized" hormones, a group of fatty acids released by many different tissues affect body in different ways which can contradict each other
what is known as the master gland where is it located and what are its components Pituitary gland or Master gland aka hypophysis size of cherry, attached to hypothalamus by a stalk called infundibulum, protected by bone.
pituitary gland made up of two lobes posterior lobe and anterior lobe
posterior lobe stores hormones made by hypothalamus release controlled by nerve impulses that travel between hypothalamus & posterior pituitary
anterior lobe these hormones are not released until chemical messengers called releasing hormones arrive from the hypothalamus
posterior lobe secretes two types of hormones oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone
oxytocin causes uterine contraction and milk release from breast
anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) promotes re-absorption of water from kidneys, indirectly affects blood pressure by regulating salt & water balance
diabetes insipidus excess water secretion as urine due to hyposecretions of ADH
secreted by the hypothalamus by the anterior lobe 7 total GH, TSH, ACTH, PRL, FSH, LH, ICSH
GH growth hormone aka somatotropin promotes growth of most body tissue
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone aka thyrotropin stimulates thyroid to produce hormones
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex of adrenal gland
PRL Prolactin stimulates production of milk in women
FSH follicle stimulating hormone stimulates ovaries to produce eggs, testes to produce sperm
Luteinizing hormone LH/ICSH interstitial cell stimulating hormone-LH females causes ovulation, production of progesterone and estrogen
ICSH males causes testosterone production
thyroid gland largest gland, butterfly shaped, located on trachea
Thyroxine (T4), Tri-Idothyronine(T3) tested for thyroid both increase basal rate metabolism, both require iodine
Calcitonin test for thyroid regulates calcium metabolism by lowering calcium in the blood
parathyroid gland usually 2 pairs, 4 glands, located on posterior of thryroid
Parathyroid hormone PTH regulates calcium metabolism, increases calcium levels in blood by promoting release of calcium from bone tissue, causes calcium retention in the kidneys
calcitonin from thyroid gland and parathyroid hormone from parathyroid gland balances calcium levels in blood.
adrenal gland aka suprarenal small pair of glangs on top of each kidney, made of 2 pairs act as 2 separate glands
adrenal cortex(outer) secretes hormones that are steroids aka: corticoids
3 groups of hormones (corticoids) mineralocorticoids(aldosterone) Glucocorticoids(Cortisol) Gonadocorticoids(estrogens)
Mineralocorticoids(aldosterone) outer layer ACTH from pituitary stimuates outer layer, controls Na/H2o absorption in blood & K secretion by kidney tubules
Glucocorticoids(cortisol) middle layer maintains carbohydrate reserve of body by promoting conversion of amino acids to glucose instead of protein anti-inflammatory affect, important in metabolism and stress
Gonadocortcoids inner layer (estrogens,androgen) in low concentrations
adrenal medulla inner stimulated by sympathetic nervous system for f/f/f response, therefore it's called sympathetic agents
adrenaline aka epinephrine increased heart rate, dilates brochioles and increase blood glucose levels
noradrenaline aka norepinephrine relaxes blood vessels decreases blood pressure helps restore body to normal resting state.
pancreas encocrine and exocrine functions
exocrine produces digestive enzymes required for digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, fats
endocrine insulin and glucogon produced by islets of langerhands(cluster of cells located in pancreas)
2 hormones produced insulin and glucogon
insulin important to move glucose through plasma membrane used for energy, once inside cell, causes liver to convert glucose to fatty acids to store in adipose tissue, promotes uptake of amino acids into cells for protein creation
glucagon works with insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, causes liver to release glucose into blood stream, increases rate that protein use to manufacture glucose in liver
insulin and glucagon these 2 processes raise and lower blood sugar levels
disorders of pancreatic is lets Hyposecretions of insulin diabetes mellitus is the main disorder of pancreas
2 Types of diabetes mellitus Type i aka juvenile diabetes Type ii aka adult onset diabetes
Juvenile diabetes type 1 aka IDDM insulin dependant diabetes mellitus- least common but most severe affecting people before age 20 cause is autoimmune destruction of insulin producing cells Treatment insulin injection
Adult onset diabetes typeii aka NIDDM non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
adult onset diabetes most common least sever, affecting people over 40, target cells don't respond to produce insulin, unable to take in glucose for energy or pancreas stops producing insulin producing cells
cause adult onset advanced age and obesity
treatment adult onset oral medication, insulin added if oral meds are insufficient weight loss, regulated diet
Gonads aka sex glands FSH and LH from pituitary gland
1.Ovaries - Estrogen FSH stimulates secondary sex characteristics growth of sex organs and monthly preparation of uterus
progesterone LH completes preparation of uterus ovulation and stimulates development of breasts assists normal fetal developement in pregnacy
2.Testes -testosterone secondary sex characteristic stimulation sperm production nd growth of sex organs
Thymus mass of lymphoid tissue
thymosin important in immune function and maturation of T cell NB: thymectomy used as treatment of myasthnia gravis
pineal gland secretes melatonin protrudes from epithalamus located on brain
Melatonin sleep/wake cycle related, possibly delays onset of puberty
endocrine producing tissue stomch, sm intestines, kidneys, heart, placenta, body cells
stomach other endocrine producing tissue secretes hormone to stimulate digestion
small intestine other endocrine producing tissue secretes hormones to produce digestive juices and regulate digestion
Kidneys other endocrine producing tissue erythropoieten signals red bone marrow to produce RBC's
heart=atrial natriuretic hormone atrial natriuretic hormoneANH- signals kidneyx to excrete sodium, lowering blood pressure/volume
Placenta- human chorionic gonadotropin HCG Human chorionic GonadotropinHCG- pregnacy test bases
body cells-prostograndins variety of effects throughout entire system
specific tissues known as target tissues with specific sites known as receptors in the plasma membrane or cytoplasm
thymectomy is used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
Created by: nemonemo