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Chapter 16

The Endocrine System - Hormones, Feedback & Regulation

QuestionAnswer
endocrine system is the __ control system slow
the endocrine system is the coordination and communication system that relies on: hormones and chemical substances that is released in bloodstream to deliver messages to cells of the body
what are hormones? chemical messengers secreted by cells into the bloodstream
hormones binds to the ____, which: activates the response
hormones travel through the ___, this regulates ____ blood - regulates metabolic function of other cells in the body
hormones are produced by: endocrine glands
once hormones are initiated, they tend to__ last much longer than those in the nervous system
hormones has a __ period lag
endocrine glands release their hormones into surrounding __ tissue fluid
endocrine glands are also known as: ductless glands
endocrine glands are called ductless glands because they__ produce hormones - lack ducts
several organs include endocrine tissue like the: thymus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas & gonaads
proteins are: soluble
lipids are: insoluble
most hormones are: acid-based
amino-acid based hormones includes: proteins, peptides & amino acids derivatives
insulin, epinephrine & thyroxine are all: amino-acid based hormones
amino acid based hormones binds to an __ extracellular receptor
amino acid based hormones __ cross the cell membrane cannot
steroids are synthesized from: cholestrol
steroids __ cross cell membrane can
steroids are composed of: lipids
the structure of the hormone determines the: mechanism of action
steroids bind to an __ receptor intracellular
steroids change when : genes are being transcribed
the hormone response depends on the target cell type
hormone effects can include: alters plasma membrane, stimulates enzyme synthesis, activates/deactivates enzyme, induce secretion, stimulate mitosis
how does a hormone communicate with its target cell? by lipid-soluble & water soluble hormonmes
what is a membrane potential? the charge across membrane potential
__ can accept or reject a gene hormones
hormones are regulated through ___ feedback negative
what turns on gene expression? transcription
the water soluble molecules has : a receptor on its cell
the water-soluble hormone is known as: 2nd messenger signaling
step 1 of 2nd messenger signaling hormone (1st messenger) binds to receptor
step 2 of 2nd messenger signaling receptor activates G protein
step 3 of 2nd messenger signaling G protein activates adenylate cyclase
step 4 of 2nd messenger signaling adenylate cyclase converts ATP --> cAMP (2nd messenger)
step 5 of 2nd messenger signaling cAMP activates protein kinases
in step 1 of the 2nd messenger signaling when the hormone binds to the receptor. what occurs? the shape of the G protein & receptor is changed
when GDP and GTP combines in step 1 of the 2nd messenger signaling, what happens? turns on receptor
what is adenylate cyclase? an enzyme that turns ATP --> cAMP
what is protein kinases? turns things on & off that happens inside portein
lipid soluble hormones go through a process called: direct gene activation
in lipid soluble hormones, they can get through the cell membrane by: diffusion
step 1 of direct gene activation: steroid hormone diffuses through a plasma membrane & binds to intracellular receptor
step 2 of direct gene activation: receptor hormone enters nucleus
step 3 of direct gene activation: receptor hormon bindes a specific DNA region
step 4 of direct gene activation: binding initiates transcription of gene --> mRNA
step 5 of direct gene activation: mRNA directs protein synthesis
___ is used when you want to slow down a response or process negative feedback
humoral stimuli release caused by altered levels of certain critical ions or nutrients
neural stimuli release caused by direct nerve signaling to release epinephrine
hormonal stimuli release caused by another hormone
what is feedback inhibition? when a molecule comes back & shut down
if a target cell doesn't have a receptor it can: ignore signal
target cell activation depends on what 3 things? blood levels of hormone number of receptors on target cell binding connection btw hormone & receptor
in up-regulation, you need: more receptors b/c hormone levels are low
down regulation change the way they respond because of: high levels of hormones - decreases number of receptors
in permissiveness ___ 1 hormone requires another for its full effect
if there is a combined effect & hormones are amplified. this is: synergism
antagonism is when: 1 hormone opposes the action of the other
the growth hormone is produced in the: anterior pituitary
Created by: Mariahj25