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AP Geography Chpt. 1

QuestionAnswer
Agricultural density the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area
Base line An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States
Cartography The science of making maps
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Connections Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Cantagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature of trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Environmental determinism A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences.
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal region (or uniform or homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional region (ornodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic info system A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System A system that determine the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking station, and receivers
Globalization Action or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0* longitude
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
International date line An arc that for the most part follows 180* longitude, it changes where you are. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (US) the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. when you go toward Asia, the calendar moves ahead one day.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the US into townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
Map A two dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
Mental map A representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Polder Land created by the dutch draining water from an area
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Prime meridian The meridian designated as 0* longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Principal meridian A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
Projection The system used to transfer location from Earth's surface to a flat map
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional (or cultural landscape) studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is econmically and technologically feasible to accoss, and socially acceptable to use
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole; specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
Section A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the US into 36 sections
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to another place
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects (The final frontier)
Space-time compression The reduction of time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus diffusion The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Township A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the US into a series of townships
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Uneven development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular region An are that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Created by: QueenOzma