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A&P Cardiac

Cardiac Chp. 1,2,5

QuestionAnswer
what is your solid total body weight % 40%
if you drink a large volume of water, how much goes to the interstitial space 2/3
control of interstitial composition is accomplished via diffusion
what % of the right pulmonary arteries deliveries ____ bld to the lungs 60% un-oxygenated
how many pulmonary viens are there? 4
chronontropy HR
inotrophy increase force of contraction of ventricles and atrium
dromotropy increase action potential conduction velocity
under normal conditions (not in heart failure) as you increase the preload the greater the cardiac output (increase in SV) Starlings law
this initateds p waves 60-90bpm SA node
this is described as an upper portion that cocks the bullet (delay in action) and lower fires the bullet AV node
parasympathetic system affects which parts of the heart Atrium and AV node only
sympathetic system effects which part of the heart atrium and ventricle
which layer of the vessel is responsible for not allowing the blood to clot and releases a substance into the bld to prevent clots endothelium
what is an example of a conduit vessel and is describe as having a _____ component aorta and arteries, elastic
resistance vessels are arterioles
capillaries are ______ vessels and have ____ pressure exchange, very low
these venules and viens are ____ vessels and contain __% of the bld volume capacitance vessels
true or false venules and viens are the smallest bld vessels in the vasculature false, caplillaries
these vessels have very thich walls, more smooth muscle, less elastic than arteries and regulate peripheral bld flow resistance, arterioles
elastic rebound of the aorta maintains diastole or systole Diastole
perfusion of the L ventricle occurs during diastole or systole? Diastole
which vessles has the largest cross-sectional area? capillaries
which nerve affects the __ node and for the _____ nervous system vagus, parasympatheic
flow equation ΔP×∏r⁴/8nl
the greatest amount of O2 consumed during the cardiac cycle? isovolumetric contraction
how do you decrease the osmotic load of PRBC 250cc=80% Hct (1 unit)? diluate in 250cc of NS will decrease osmotic load to 40%
cardiac muscle cells have no___channels Na
these cells are self generating action potentials and conduct from cell to cell cardiac muscle cells
these cells have no specialized conduction system, initiate action potentials, and slow response action potentials pacemaker cells
thse cardiac cells have a fast response action potential cardiac muscle cells
in phase 3 of the cardiac muscle cell repolarization is due to K
this phase is called diastolic depolarization or pacemaker potential phase 4
this phase has a slower initial depolarization phase and is responsible by the inward movement of Ca Phase 0
this phase has a lower amplitude overshoot phase 1
this phase has no plateau phase due to lack of slow Na channels phase 2
repolarization due to K, closure of Ca and Na channels, elevated intracellular Ca causes K opening, which phase is this? Phase 3
contraction of the atrium after initiation of action potential is reflective of which wave enlarged a wave= a wave increased atrial volume
cusp value is reflective of which wave c wave
ventricular contraction and atrium filling is reflective of which wave enlarged v wave= v wave mitral regurgitation
which ventricle holds the most amount of volume R ventricle
with waveforms are the same but have different pressures PAP and Arterial
which extracelluar compartment transports via convection intravascular or Plasma
areas of low resistance receive ____ flow high
longer the length _____ the resistance increase
larger the radius _____ the resistance decrease
stroke volume in ml 60ml
for the aortic value to open it you must overcome _____ by increasing ______ systemic vascular resistance, intraventricular pressure
true or false right and left sides must have the same cardiac output, which is? true, 5-6L/min
this receives the deoxygenated blood from the coronary arteries coronary sinus
end tidal CO2= perfusion
which two organs need oxygen and % usage Brain 60% Heart 80%
organs that don't tolerate decreased perfusion Brain, Cardiac muscle, and skeletol muscle
Lung, kidney, Gi tract, liver, and skin are organs that can tolerate deceases in perfusion
during systole, which valves open mitral and aortic
these vessels stretch to twice their unloaded length conduit vessels, arteries and aorta
formed element are? where are they formed? And what is normal % PRBC, Plts, WBCs formed in the bone marrow 40%
Na ___mV, Ca ___mV, more outside then inside K ___mV,more inside than outside +70 +100 -90
permeability of an ion is dependent on the number of channels ____ open
what are the types of cardiac cell cardiac muscle cells and pacemaker cells
how does the PNS slow down the SA node rate ACh increases the permeabiliyt to K and decreases the permeability of Na
NE increases the permeability to Na and Ca, this is how the SNS increases the SA node rate.
what is the basic functional unit sacromere
___ head bind to ___ causing a contraction myosin, actin
____ causes muscle to relax, releasing myosin head form actin and reposition it for another contraction ATP
excittion contraction coupling promotes release of ___ form the ___ to initiate contraction Ca, SR
ATP provides energy to break Ca binding, resulting in _____ relaxation
what are the main components when assessing the heart muscle Preload, Afterload, Contractility, HR
Contractility is asessed via Echo, SV
you notice that the arterial line waveform has a very peaked, narrow waveform, this is indicative of aortic stenosis
what can increase the slope of phase 4 arterial hypoxemia, hypercarbia, catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs, acute hypokalemia, hyperthermia, HTN
vagal stimulation, positive airway pressure, acute hyperkalemia, arrythmias are things that can decrease the slope of phase 4
what is the duration of the PR interval less than 200 ms
QRS interval less than 120ms
ways to treat arrhythmias Correct the source, antidysrhythmic drugs, electrical cardioversion, artificial cardiac pacemaker
how do you dx the location of a BBB? Which lead is LBBB found in and a RBBB RBBB: V₁ LBBB:Lead I
What is the most common dysrhythmia Sinus tachycardia
What is the treatment for bradycardia Atrophine 0.4mg on less
which atrial dysrhythmia has no effective atrial contraction, loss filling in LV, with intermediate contractions A. flutter
this atrial dysrhythmia has no contraction in atruim, electial problem A. Fib
this rhythm is considered: irregular, irregular A. fib
there will be lose of S₁ and no a wave in the CVP A.fib
what are the bpm for SA, AV, and Ventricular SA 60-80 AV 30-40 Vent. 20-30
intermediate contractions of the atrium, variable P wave pattern of firing WAP
QRS must change direction, T wave is in the opposite direction of the QRS, Widen QRS how to dx a ventricular premature beat
where is the delta wave located and what disorder, and what don't you treat this disorder with in the QRS, WPW syndrome, Verapamil
what happens when the valve becomes tight? increased load, increased resistance, depending on the location of the valve
what happen when you have a regurgitant valve volume problems, either too much or too little
which conditions have LV pressure overload Aortic stenosis, IHSS
which conditions have LV volume overload AI, MR
which conditions have LV pressure and volume overload Mitral stenosis
what are the compensatory mechanisms pressure overload (myocardial hypertrophy), volume overload (Dilation), changes in vascular tone and SNS activity
what is the coronary perfusion equation CPP=ADP-LVEDP
Dyspnea on exertion, angina, and orthostatic exertional syncope are clinical findings for Aortic stenosis
substances are carried between organs by being swept along with the flow of blood Convection transport
both hight volume and low contractility implicates increased CVP
decreased CVP both low volume and high contractility
△P= Pv-Pc
spleen has ___ cc of blood for reserve 250cc
venous return should always = CO
influences of CVP on Venous return direct perfusion pressure indirect venous resistance
intrathoracic pressure is negative pressure
positive pressure will decrease venous return
what increases intrathoracic pressure positive pressure ventilation coughing with closed glottis valsalva manuever
a shift to the left on the CVP curve means decreased bld volume decreased peripheral venous return
aortic baroreceptors is effected by which nerve vagus
carotid baroreptor is effected by which nerve glossopharyngeal nerve IX
muscles have what kind of receptors nicotinic
sympathetic postganglionic receptors are α1 α2 β1 β2
Created by: melbacs