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Upper Limb Muscles.

CCRI-Newport Q12

QuestionAnswer
abducts the arm (humerus) Two muscles have this action. One is a rotator cuff muscle and the other is the deltoid muscle.
abducts (protracts) the scapula This is an action of the muscle of the scapula that has the long thoracic nerve on its superficial surface. It is the only muscle of the scapula to do this.
abducts the wrist (hand) Three muscles have this function. Two are served by the radial nerve and one by the median nerve. Two of these muscles also extend the wrist and one of these muscles flexes the wrist. None of them move the digits.
adducts the arm (humerus) Four of the muscles that move the arm have this action. No other muscles that we study perform this action.
adducts (retracts) the scapula This is an action that only the trapezius muscle and the rhomboid muscles perform.
adducts the wrist (hand) Two muscles in the forearm have this action and they are the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle.
anconeus m. The origin of this muscle is the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Its insertion is the ulna. It is served by the radial nerve. Its most important action is extension of the forearm so it is a synergyst of the triceps brachii.
axillary nerve A branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus (anterior rami of C5/C6). It runs between the subscapularis and teres major muscles. It reappears on the lateral surface of the arm where it serves the deltoids (deltoid in humans) and the teres minor.
biceps brachii m. This muscle flexes the forearm and supinates the wrist. Nerve: musculocutaneous nerve. Origin: the supraglenoid tubercle and the coracoid process of the scapula. It inserts on the radial tuberosity of the radius and on the bicipital aponeurosis.
brachialis m. This muscle flexes the forearm. It is served by the musculocutaneous nerve. It originates on the anterior surface of the humerus and inserts on the ulna.
brachioradialis m. This muscle moves the forearm and the wrist. It is the only flexor muscle that we study that is served by the radial nerve. Origin: supracondyloid ridge of the humerus, Insertion: the radius
coracobrachialis m. Origin: the coracoid process of the scapula, Insertion: the humerus, specifically the middle of medial border of middle third of humerus opposite deltoid tuberosity. It is served by the musculocutaneous nerve. It is a flexor and an adductor of the arm.
coracoid process of the scapula This landmark of the scapula can be palpated in the infraclavicular fossa. The name implies that it looks like a crow’s beak. It is the origin for the biceps brachii and the coracobrachialis. It is the insertion for pectoralis minor.
extends the arm (humerus) The only muscles that we study that have this action are three muscles from the group that move the arm. One of them is latissimus dorsi.
depresses the scapula This is an action of the trapezius and pectoralis minor muscles but not the rhomboids and serattus anterior muscles.
dorsal scapular nerve This is the nerve that serves the rhomboid muscles and part of the levator scapulae ventralis muscle.
dorsal scapular nerve and anterior rami of C3 and C4 This is the nerve supply for the levator scapulae (ventralis) muscle.
elevates the scapula Only three muscles of the group known as the muscles of the scapula do this to the scapula.
deltoid m. Origin: the lateral 1/2 of the clavicle, the acromion, and the spine of the scapula. Insertion: the humerus, Nerve: axillary nerve. Actions: prime flexor, abductor, and extensor of the arm (humerus), laterally and medially rotates the arm (humerus).
extends the digits This is the action of the extensor digitorum lateralis and one of the actions of extensor digitorum communis.
extends the forearm This function is performed by the triceps brachii and anconeus muscles.
extends the wrist (hand) Four of the five muscles that we study in the posterior compartment of the forearm that move the wrist or the digits have this action.
extensor carpi radialis brevis m. Found in the posterior compartment of the forearm and is served by the radial nerve. Originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. It inserts on the carpals or digits, specifically the base of the third metacarpal. It extends and abducts the wrist.
extensor carpi radialis longus m. Found in the posterior compartment of the forearm and is served by the radial nerve. Originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Inserts on the carpals or digits. It extends and abducts the wrist.
extensor carpi ulnaris m. In the posterior compartment of the forearm and served by the radial nerve. Originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Inserts on the carpals or digits. It extends and adducts the wrist.
extensor digitorum m. (same as #27) This is the shorter name for a muscle that extends the wrist and the digits. This muscle has another name, but it is a longer name.
extensor digitorum communis m. In the posterior compartment of the forearm and served by the radial nerve. Originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Inserts on the digits, specifically by four tendons, one to each digit except the thumb. It extends the wrist and digits.
extensor digitorum lateralis m. (cat only) This is a cat only muscle that inserts on the carpals or digits and is supplied by the radial nerve. Its origin is on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
flexes the arm (humerus) Three of the muscles that move the arm have this action. One of them is the coracobrachialis muscle.
flexes the forearm Three muscles that we have studied are capable of this action. They are the biceps brachii, brachialis, and bracioradialis.
flexes the digits Only two muscles have this action. They are the flexor digitorum superficialis and the flexor digitorum profundus.
flexes the neck laterally This is one action of the levator scapulae ventralis and it is the only muscle that stabilizes the scapula that has this action.
flexes the wrist (hand) All five of the muscles we study in the anterior compartment of the forearm that move the wrist or the digits have this action.
flexor carpi radialis m. In the anterior compartment of the forearm and is served by the median nerve. Origin: the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Inserts on the carpals or digits. It is the only muscle in the anterior compartment that abducts the wrist.
flexor carpi ulnaris m. In anterior compartment of the forearm. Originates on the medial epicondyle of the humerus. It inserts on the carpals or digits. It is served by the ulnar nerve, making it unusual for this compartment of the forearm. It flexes and adducts the wrist.
flexor digitorum profundus m. In the anterior compartment of the forearm. The only muscle of this compartment served by two nerves, half by the median nerve and half by the ulnar nerve. Origin: proximal 75% of the ulna. It inserts on the digits and flexes the wrist and the digits.
flexor digitorum superficialis m. In the anterior compartment of the forearm. It is served by the median nerve. Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus. Inserts on the carpals or digits. It flexes the wrist and the digits.
half median nerve, half ulnar nerve This describes the nerve supply to the flexor digitorum profundus muscle.
infraspinatus m. This is one of the rotator cuff muscles. It is a lateral rotator of the arm and is served by the suprascapular nerve. It inserts on the humerus. It originates on the infraspinous fossa of the scapula.
inserts on the carpals or digits This describes the generic insertion of the group of ten muscles that move the wrist or the digits.
inserts on the radius The muscles that pronate the wrist and the muscles that supinate the wrist all have this as their insertion
inserts on the humerus This is the generic insertion for the rotator cuff muscles and the muscles that move the arm.
inserts on the scapula This is the general description of the insertion for the five muscles that moor or stabilize the scapula.
laterally rotates the arm (humerus) There are two muscles that have this action, they are the infraspinatus muscle and teres minor muscle.
inserts on the ulna Three of the muscles that move the forearm have this for an insertion. Generally muscles that insert on this bone do not pronate or supinate the wrist.
laterally and medially rotates the arm (humerus) The deltoid muscle is the only muscle with this action.
latissimus dorsi m. It extends, adducts, and medially rotates the arm. It is served by the thoracodorsal nerve. Its origin is the iliac crest, T7 to T12, and the lumar fascia. It inserts on the humerus.
levator scapulae (ventralis) m. Served by a branch of the dorsal scapular nerve as well as lateral branches of C3 and C4 anterior rami. Its origin is on the transverse processes of C1 to C4 vertebrae. Inserts on the scapula and elevates the scapula and may also flex the neck laterally.
long thoracic nerve This nerve serves serratus ventralis. It is found on the superficial side of this muscle. It is a lateral branch of the anterior rami of C5, C6, and C7.
lower subscapular nerve This nerve controls one of the muscles that move the arm. The muscle has the same action as latissimus dorsi.
medial pectoral nerve This is the nerve that serves the pectoralis minor.
medial and lateral pectoral nerves This is the nerve supply to one of the muscles that move the arm. The muscle these nerves serve adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the arm.
medially rotates the arm (humerus) Five muscles have this action. One is a rotator cuff muscle and the other four muscles that have this action are muscles that move the arm.
median nerve Runs with the brachial artery in the arm. Passes through the supracondyloid foramen of the cat with the brachial artery and then in the forearm it runs with the radial artery. Primarily serves the anterior compartment.
mooring the scapula This is the description of general function for 5 muscles. Some authors say they stabilize the scapula. They include trapezius, lavator scapulae ventralis, rhomboids, pectoralis minor, and serratus anterior.
musculocutaneous nerve This nerve is formed from the lateral cord. It contains nerves from the anterior rami of C5, C6, and C7. It serves the anterior compartment of the arm. It also receives sensory input from the lateral cutaneous area of the forearm.
origin on the anterior surface of humerus This is the origin for the brachialis muscle.
origin on the coracoid process of the scapula This is the origin for the coracobrachialis muscle.
origin on the iliac crest, spines of the thoracic vertebrae 7 - 12, and the lumbar fascia This is the origin for the lattissimus dorsi muscle.
origin on the infraglenoid tubercle and shaft of the humerus This is the origin for the triceps brachii muscle.
origin on the infraspinous fossa of scapula This is the origin for the infraspinatus muscle.
origin on the lateral border of scapula This is the origin for the teres minor muscle (on the superior 2/3 of this origin) and the teres major muscle (on the inferior 1/3 of this origin).
origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus This is the origin for the following muscles: Anconeus, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus, Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis, Extensor Digitorium Communis, Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, and Extensor Digitorium Lateralis.
origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and ulna This is the origin for the supinator muscle.
origin on the lateral half of the clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula This is the origin for the deltoid muscle.
origin on the ligamentum nuchae and spines of cervical vertebra 7 – thoracic vertebra 12 This is the origin for the trapezius muscle.
origin on the medial epicondyle of the humerus This is the origin for the following muscles: Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, and Flexor Digitorium Superficialis.
origin on the medial epicondyle of the humerus and ulna This is the origin for the pronator teres muscle.
origin on the proximal 75% of ulna This origin is for one of the muscles that move the wrist or the digits. The muscle is in the anterior compartment of the forearm. It gets half of its nerve supply from the ulnar nerve and the other half from the median nerve.
origin on ribs 1 through 9 This describes the origin for a muscle that has the long thoracic nerve on its superficial side.
origin on ribs 3 through 5 This is the origin of a muscle that inserts on the scapula, and specifically on the coracoids process of the scapula. It is served b the medial pectoral nerve.
origin on the spines of cervical vertebrae 1 – 4 This is the origin for the levator scapulae (ventralis) muscle.
origin on the spines of cervical vertebra 7-thoracic vertebra 5 This is the origin for the rhomboid muscles.
origin on the sternum, costal cartilage of ribs 1-6 (or 7), clavicle, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique m. This is the origin for the pectoralis major muscle.
origin on the subscapular fossa of scapula This is the origin for the subscapularis muscle.
origin on the supracondyloid ridge of the humerus This is the origin for the brachioradialis muscle.
origin on the supraglenoid tubercle and coracoid process of the scapula This is the origin for the biceps brachii muscle.
origin on supraspinous fossa of scapula This is the origin for the supraspinatus muscle.
origin on ulna There is only one muslce that we study that has this simple origin at the distal end of the forearm. The muscle is one of the muscles that move the hand.
palmaris longus m. (humans only) In the anterior compartment of the human forearm, but not in the cat’s. It is served by the median nerve. It flexes the wrist, but does not move the digits. About 10% of the human population does not have this muscle.
pectoralis major m. Origin: On the sternum, costal cartilage of ribs 1 through 6 (or 7), clavicle, and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle. Insertion: humerus. Nerves: medial and lateral pectoral nerves. It adducts, flexes, and medially rotates the arm (humerus).
pectoralis minor m. Origin: on the ribs 3 through 5. Insertion: the scapula It is served by the medial pectoral nerve. Its action is to depress and rotate the scapula. It is one of the five muscles that stabilize (moor) the scapula.
prime flexor of the arm (humerus) This is the one action of the deltoid muscle that describes its unique role.
pronates (medially rotates) wrist (hand) This is the action of the pronator teres and pronator quadrates muscles.
pronator quadratus m. This muscle has its origin on the ulna and its insertion on the radius. Both the origin and insertion are at the distal third of the forearm. It is served by the median nerve. It pronates the wrist.
pronator teres m. Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus and on the ulna. It inserts on the radius, specifically on the middle third of the lateral surface of the radius. It is served by the median nerve. It pronates the wrist.
radial nerve Anterior rami of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. Serves the posterior compartment of the arm and forearm as well as the brachioradialis muscle. It controls all the extensor muscles found in the arm and forearm and two of the supinator muscles.
rhomboideus muscles There are two of these muscles and they are grouped with four other muscles that stabilize (moor) the scapula. Origin: C7 to T5 and they insert on the scapula. They are served by the dorsal scapular nerve. They adduct, elevate and rotate the scapula.
rotates the scapula Four of the five muscles that stabilize (moor) the scapula have this action. The only one of this group that does not have this action is the levator scapulae ventralis muscle.
rotator cuff This is the name of a group of four muscles that move the arm. They all attach very close to the shoulder joint, around the head of the humerus. Therefore the sacrifice power but gain speed. These muscles are often injured in sports activities.
serratus anterior (ventralis) m. Nerve: long thoracic nerve. Origin: ribs 1 through 9. Its insertion is the scapula, and specifically on theanterior surface along the vertebral border of the scapula. It abducts (protracts) and rotates the scapula.
spinal accessory nerve (XI) This is an unusual cranial nerve in that it is primarily a motor nerve to two muscles, one of which is a muscle that stabilizes the scapula.
subscapularis m. This muscle is one of the four rotator cuff muscles. Origin: subscapular fossa of the scapula. Insertion: humerus. It is the only medial rotator of the arm that is a rotator cuff muscle. Nerve: upper and lower subscapular nerves.
supinates (laterally rotates) wrist (hand) This is an action of the supinator muscle, brachioradialis muscle, and biceps brachii muscle.
supinator m. This muscle is served by the radial nerve. Its origin is on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the ulna. Its insertion is the radius. It has one action in common with the biceps brachii and the brachioradialis muscles.
suprascapular nerve This nerve serves the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and the shoulder joint. The origin of this nerve is from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It runs through the suprascapular notch with the suprascapular artery.
supraspinatus m. This is one of the rotator cuff muscles. It is the only one that abducts the arm. Origin: is on the supraspinous fossa of the scapula specifically on the medial 66.7% of supraspinous fossa of the scapula. Insertion humerus. Nerve: suprascapular nerve.
teres major m. This is one of the five muscles that move the arm other than the rotator cuff muscles. Origin: lateral border of the scapula (the Inferior third). Insertion: humerus. Nerve: lower subscapular nerve. It extends, adducts, and medially rotates the arm.
teres minor m. This muscle is one of the rotator cuff muscles. Origin: lateral border of scapula (the superior two thirds). Insertion: humerus. Same action as the infraspinatus muscle. Nerve: axillary nerve.
thoracodorsal nerve This nerve is found on the deep side of the latissimus dorsi at the humeral end. It serves that muscle and runs with an artery of the same name.
trapezius m. Origin: ligamentum nuchae and C7 to T12. Insertion: Scapula. It is served by the spinal accessory nerve (XI). It elevates, adducts (retracts), rotates, and depresses the scapula.
triceps brachii m. Origin: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and the shaft of the humerus. It inserts on the ulna, specifically on the olecranon process of ulna. It is served by the radial nerve. It has the same action as the anconeus muscle.
upper and lower subscapular nerves This is the nerve supply for the only rotator cuff muscle that medially rotates the arm.
ulnar nerve The medial cord gives rise to this nerve in the axilla. It contains nerves from the anterior rami of C8 and T1. It runs along the ulna bone with the ulnar artery.
Created by: kboyer