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Brachial Plexus.

CCRI-Newport Q11

QuestionAnswer
15 intrinsic muscles in the hand except those controlling the thumb Controlled by the ulnar nerve.
5 muscles in the hand controlling the thumb Controlled by the median nerve.
anconeus m. This small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm is a synergist to the triceps brachii. It is served by the radial nerve.
anterior compartment of forearm This compartment of the pectoral appendage is primarily controled by the median nerve, except for 1.5 muscles. It primarily has flexor muscles in it.
anterior compartment of the arm This compartment of the pectoral appendage is primarily controled by the musculocutaneous nerve. It primarily has flexor muscles in it.
anterior divisions The trunks of the brachial plexus give rise to these as well as a similar set of structures that pass posteriorly.
ape hand This is the name for a syndrome that is brought about by damage to the median nerve. This results in the loss of ability to oppose the thumb.
axillary artery This artery begins at the end of the subclavian artery and ends with the beginning of the brachial artery. It has three branches that we will study in the cat: the ventral thoracic artery, the lateral (long) thoracic artery, and the subscapular artery.
axillary nerve This nerve is a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus containing neurons from anterior rami of C5 and C6. It can be seen in the axilla adjacent to the caudal humeral circumflex artery. It runs between the subscapularis & teres major muscles.
belly of the biceps brachii This is the area that the cranial humeral circumflex artery normally connects to. It is also the area we find the musculocutaneous nerve running along.
biceps brachii m. origin: on the supraglenoid tubercle & the coracoid process of the scapula. Inserts: on the radial tuberosity & bicipital apponeurosis of the forearm. It causes flexion of forearm (elbow) and supination of hand. It is served by the musculocutaneous nerve.
brachial artery This artery runs with the median nerve and in the cat it passes through the supracondyloid foramen.
brachialis m. This muscle originates on the humerus and inserts on the ulna. It is in the anterior compartment of the arm and is served by the musclulocutaneous nerve. Its only action is flexion of the forearm.
brachioradialis m. This muscle is the only flexor we study that is served by the radial nerve. It flexes the forearm and supinates the hand. This muscle, although a flexor, can be most easily seen on the extensor side.
branches The cords of the brachial plexus give rise to five of these. Four of them go into the arm and one goes out into the shoulder.
caudal humeral circumflex artery A branch of the subscapular artery. In the cat it serves the lateral and long heads of the triceps, acromiodeltoid, and spinodeltoid. In humans it serves the deltoid muscle and the shoulder joint.
cephalic vein This vein is observed on the superficial, lateral side of the forearm and arm. Inferior to the clavicle it passes into the axilla where it joins the axillary vein. The axillary vein passes through the thoracic wall to become the subclavian vein.
cervical ramus 5 This is the most superior of the rami that form the brachial plexus. There is one on each side of the body.
cervical ramus 6 This is the second from the most superior of the rami that form the brachial plexus. There is one on each side of the body.
cervical ramus 7 This is the third from the most superior of the rami that form the brachial plexus. There is one on each side of the body.
cervical ramus 8 This is the fourth from the most superior of the rami that form the brachial plexus. There is one on each side of the body.
claw hand This is the name of a syndrome that is brought about by damage to the ulnar nerve. The primary symptom is partial flexion of the fingers of the hand involved, with the most flexion occurring on the medial side of the hand.
coracobrachialis m. This muscle originates from the coracoid process of the scapula & inserts on the middle third of the humerus near the deltoid tuberosity. Its served by the musculocutaneous nerve. Responsible for flexion and adduction of arm & stabilizing shoulder joint.
cords There are three of these structures and two are formed by the merging of the anterior and posterior divisions. One is formed by a single anterior division. They are named for their positions relative to the middle third of the axillary artery.
cranial humeral circumflex artery This artery is usually a branch of the brachial artery. It goes to the belly of the biceps brachii muscle.
deep brachial artery This artery is a small branch or more often two or three small branches of the brachial artery. It runs deep into the arm with the radial nerve.
deltoid m. This muscle moves the arm. It is the prime flexor, abductor, extensor, medial and lateral rotator of the arm. It is served by the axillary nerve.
divisions The three trunks of the brachial plexus give rise to these. There is an anterior and posterior structure from each trunk that are collectively called this.
dorsal scapular nerve Although we did not see this nerve in lab, it is important because it serves the rhomboid muscles and the levator scapulae ventralis muscle.
drop wrist syndrome This is a syndrome that is brought about by damage to the radial nerve. This results in the loss of ability to extend the hand.
extensor carpi radialis brevis m. This muscle is in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is served by the radial nerve and is an extensor and abductor of the wrist. It is found on the lateral side of the forearm. It has its origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
extensor carpi radialis longus m. This muscle is found in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is one of two muscles that we studied that extends and abducts the hand or writst. It is served by the radial nerve and originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
extensor carpi ulnaris m. This muscle of the posterior compartment of the forearm exends the carpals and adducts the hand. It is served by the radial nerve. It has its origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
extensor digitorum communis m. This muscle is in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It is served by the radial nerve and is an extensor of the digits and the wrist. It has its origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.
extensor digitorum lateralis m. (cat) This is a cat only muscle that is controlled by the radial nerve. It inserts on the carpals or digits and has an origin on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. This muscle extends the digits.
flexor carpi radialis m. This muscle flexes and abducts the wrist. It is served by the median nerve. It has an origin on the medial epicondyle.
flexor carpi ulnaris m. This muscle is in the anterior compartment of the forearm. It is unusual in that it is served by the ulnar nerve. It is a flexor and adductor of the wrist.
flexor digitorum superficialis m. This muscle is served by the median nerve. It both flexes digits two through five and the hand. It is deep to palmaris longus in humans. In the cat it is superficial to the other flexor of the digits.
half of flexor digitorum profundus m. Half of this muscle is controlled by the ulnar nerve while the half is controlled by the median nerve.
head waiter's syndrome This syndrome is brought about by damage to the axillary nerve. If the damage results in loss of the use of the teres minor, the arm will rotate medially so that the palm faces posteriorly.
infraspinatus m. Origin: on the infraspinous fossa and Insertion: on the greater tubercle of the humerus. It's action is lateral (external) rotation and horizontal abduction of arm. It is served by the suprascapular nerve. It is one of the rotator cuff muscles.
lateral (long) thoracic artery This artery is a branch of the middle third of the axillary artery. It serves the latissimus dorsi. In humans it serves the anterior and medial walls of the axilla. In women it also has branches that serve the mammary gland.
lateral cord This structure is formed from the anterior divisions of the upper and middle trunks of the brachial plexus. It contains neurons from anterior rami of C5, C6, and C7. It gives rise to the musculocutaneous nerve as well as part of the median nerve.
deep brachial artery In humans it serves the posterior compartment of the arm and forms anastomoses with the posterior humeral circumflex artery. In the cat it serves the triceps brachii, epitrochlearis and latissimus dorsi.
lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm This is the name of the branch of the musculocuataneous nerve that serves the skin in the forearm. It is the only nerve derived from the musculocutaneous nerve that goes into the forearm.
lateral surface of palm This is the surface of the hand, not including the digits, where the skin is served by the median nerve.
latero-posterior surface of the hand Served by the radial nerve.
latissimus dorsi m. It extends, hyperextends, medially rotates, and adducts the arm. It is served by the thoracodorsal nerve.
levator scapulae ventralis m. It elevates and rotates the scapula or flexes the neck laterally.
lower trunk This structure is formed from the union of anterior rami of cervical spinal nerve 8 and thoracic spinal nerve 1. It has an anterior and posterior division.
medial cord This structure is formed from the anterior division of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It contains neurons from anterior rami of C8, and T1. It gives rise to the ulnar nerve as well as part of the median nerve.
medial cutaneous area of the hand This surface of the hand is served by the ulnar nerve, both anteriorly and posteriorly.
median nerve This nerve runs with the brachial artery in the arm. It passes through the supracondyloid foramen of the cat with the brachial artery and then in the forearm it runs with the radial artery. It passes through the carpal tunnel into the hand.
middle trunk This structure is formed from the anterior ramus of cervical spinal nerve 7. It has an anterior and posterior division.
musculocutaneous nerve This nerve is formed from the lateral cord. It contains neurons from the anterior rami of C5, C6, and C7. It serves the anterior compartment of the arm. It also receives sensory input from the lateral cutaneous area of the forearm.
palmaris longus m. This muscle is not found in cats. It is in the anterior compartment of the forearm and is served by the median nerve. Its only action is flexion of the hand. Its tendon is the only tendon that passes into the hand that is superficial to the flexor retina
posterior compartment of forearm This compartment of the pectoral appendage is completely served by the radial nerve and has extensors in it. Since there are two such compartments, you also need to know that it is the distal of the two compartments.
posterior compartment of the arm This compartment of the pectoral appendage is completely served by the radial nerve and has extensors in it. Since there are two such compartments, you also need to know that it is the proximal of the two compartments.
posterior cord This structure is formed from the posterior divisions of the upper, middle, and lower trunks of the brachial plexus. It contains neurons from anterior rami of C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. It gives rise to the radial and axillary nerves.
posterior divisions The trunks of the brachial plexus give rise to these as well as a similar set of structures that pass anteriorly.
pronator quadratus m. This muscle pronates the hand and is found at the distal end of the forearm. It is served by the median nerve. We did not see this muscle in lab.
pronator teres m. This muscle pronates the hand. It is served by the median nerve. It originates from the medial epicondle of the humerus and from the medial surface of the coronoid process of the ulna. It inserts on the lateral surface of the middle third of the radius.
radial artery This artery is a branch of the brachial artery. Its origin is in the forearm and it runs with the median nerve on the lateral side of the forearm. It is usually found deep and medial to the flexor carpi radialis muscle.
radial nerve This nerve is a branch of the posterior cord containing neurons from the anterior rami of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. It serves the posterior compartment of the arm and forearm as well as the brachioradialis muscle.
rami When the spinal nerves leave the intervertebral foramina they divide into anterior and posterior structure. This is the name of these structures. The anterior structures from C5 to T1 form the beginning of the brachial plexus.
rhomboideus muscles This is a group of two muscles, both of which are served by the dorsal scapular nerve. They both retract, elevate, and rotate the scapula.
serratus anterior m. This muscle looks like fingers because it attaches to the ribs. It is one of the muscles that stabilize the scapula. It is served by the long thoracic nerve. It originates on ribs 1 to 9 and can abduct (protract) and rotate the scapula.
subscapular artery This artery is the largest lateral branch of the axillary artery. It marks the end of the axillary artery and the beginning of the brachial artery. It arises from the distal third of the axillary artery on the posterior surface.
subscapularis m. This muscle is one of the rotator cuff muscles. It is the only rotator cuff muscle that is a medial rotator of the arm. It has an origin on the subscapular fossa and inserts on the lesser tubercle of the humerus. It is served by the subscapular nerve.
supinator m. This muscle supinates the arm but does not flex the forearm. It is served by the radial nerve.
supracondyloid foramen This landmark is found on the humerus of the cat but NOT on the humerus of a human. The brachial artery and median nerve of the cat pass through this structure and are, therefore, somewhat protected by this arch of bone.
suprascapular artery This vessel is a branch of the transverse scapular artery. It passes through the suprascapular notch with the suprascapular nerve and it sends branches to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. It serves the infraspinatus and supraspinatus.
suprascapular nerve This nerve serves the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. The origin of this nerve is the upper trunk of the brachial plexus (including the anterior rami from spinal nerves from C5 & C6). It runs through the suprascapular notch with the suprascapular artery.
suprascapular notch It is through this that the suprascapular artery and the suprascapular nerve pass. This nerve goes on to control the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. The suprascapular artery is a branch of the transverse scapular artery.
supraspinatus m. This muscle is a rotator cuff muscle. It is the only rotator cuff muscle that is an abductor of the arm. It is served by the suprascapular nerve. It has an origin on the supraspinous fossa of the scapula and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus.
surface of index finger, middle finger, and half of ring finger Served by the median nerve.
surface of little finger and half of the ring finger Served by the ulnar nerve.
teres minor m. Rotator cuff muscle that has lateral rotation of the arm. The only one that is served by the axillary nerve. If this nerve is damaged & this muscle is no longer active, the individual exhibits head waiter's syndrome with medial rotation of the arm.
thoracic ramus 1 This is the inferior most of the anterior rami that make up the brachial plexus.
thoracodorsal artery This artery is a branch of the subscapular artery. It serves the latissimus dorsi muscle and can be observed on the deep side of that muscle at its humeral end where it runs with the thoracodorsal nerve.
transverse scapular artery This artery is a branch of the thyrocervical artery. On the deep side of the scapula it runs with the suprascapular nerve and it then gives rise to the suprascapular artery. There is no comparable artery in humans.
triceps brachii m. This muscle is served by the radial nerve and is found in the posterior compartment of the arm. The anconeus muscle is a synergist to this muscle. It has three heads and crosses two joints, the shoulder and the elbow.
trunks There are three of these and they are formed by the anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves 5, 6, 7, 8 and thoracic spinal nerve 1. Each of them gives rise to an anterior division and a posterior division.
ulnar artery This artery is a branch of the brachial artery. Its origin is in the forearm and it runs with the ulnar nerve on the medial side of the forearm. It is usually found deep and lateral to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.
ulnar nerve The medial cord gives rise to this nerve in the axilla. It contains nerves from the anterior rami of C8 and T1 that come directly from the anterior divisions of the brachial plexus. In the forearm it joins the ulnar artery and runs along the ulna bone.
upper trunk This part of the brachial plexus is formed by the union of the anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves 5 and 6. It has an anterior and posterior division.
ventral thoracic artery This artery is the first lateral branch of the axillary artery. It serves the medial ends of the latissimus dorsi and the pectoralis muscles. It runs with the cranial ventral thoracic nerve.
latissimus dorsi m. This muscle originates from the lumbar fascia, portions of the sacrum, iliac crest, ribs, and inferior angle of the scapula and inserts on the humerus.
Created by: kboyer