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A&P Chapt 23, 24, 25

Reproductive, Pregnancy & Human Development, Heredity

What are the primary sex organs? Testes & Ovaries
What are the secondary organs in a male? Ducts, glands & penis
What are the secondary organs in a female? Uterus
What is the spermatic cord? strand of connective tissue extending from the abdomen to each testicle
What is the cremaster muscle? surrounds the spermatic cord & contracts in cold weather to draw testes closer to the body (for warmth)
How long does stored sperm stay fertile? 40-60 days
What is leydig cells and where are they found? Produce testosterone, located in the interstitial cells of testes
What are seminiferous tubules? Ducts in which sperm are produced, contained in the walls are sertoli cells which promote the development of sperm
What do the efferent ductules do? Conduct immature sperm away from the testis to the epididymis
What is the epididymis? Location where sperm mature & ultimately are stored
What is the vas deferns? Structure that travels from the epididymis, through the spermatic cord, into the pelvic cavity, & over the ureter to the prostate
What are the two triggers of the gonadotropins? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
What is the seminal vesicle? Secretes fluid containing semen, fructose, & other substances into the ejaculatory duct
What is the ejaculatory duct? Pair of tubules that pass through the prostate & empty into the urethra
What is the corpus cavernosa? Two large cylinders of the erectile tissues that fill the shaft & penis
Where does spermatogenisis start? In the seminiferous tubules
What is acrosome? Enzymes that help sperm penetrate the egg during fertilization
What are the two key qualities of semen and their functions? Stickiness - sticks to walls of vagina & cervix Alkalinity - counteracts with the acidity of vagina
Describe the ovaries & their location About the size & shape of almonds, sit on each side of the uterus where they produce both egg cells (ova) & sex hormones
What contains thousands of immature eggs? Ovaries
Where does fertilization occur? Ampula (middle of fallopian tube)
What is the fundus? Curved upper portion of the uterus
What is the cervix? Inferior end of the uterus
What is the vagina? Muscular tube, serves as a receptor for the penis & sperm
What is the uterus? Muscular chamber that houses the growing embryo
Where does the embryo attach to? Endometrium of uterus
What secretes milk during lactation? Acini
How long is the average reproductive cycle? 28 days (can range 20-45 days)
What prompts ovulation? Spike in lutenizing hormone (LH)
What triggers menstruation? Falling levels of estrogen & progesterone
What do hormonal birth control methods do? Interfere with follicular development & ovulation
What is a zygote? Fertilized egg with 46 chromosomes
How long is the average gestation? 40 weeks (3 trimesters)
What trimester do most of the organs develop? 2nd, (13-24 weeks)
What is the preembryonic stage? First 16 days
What plays a key role in ensuring continuation of early pregnancy & why? Trophoblast, because the cells secrete human chronic gonadotropin (HCG)
What does HCG do? Hormone that prompts the corpus leteum to secrete estrogen & progesterone.
What hormone stimulates endometrial growth & prevents menstruation? Progesterone
How long does it take from ovulation to implantation? 6 days
What is the amnion's function? Filled with fluid that protects the embryo from trauma & changes in temperature
How does the amnion remain stable? The fetus urinates in it regularly
Does the fetus breathe & swallow the amnion? Yes
How many arteries does the umbilical cord have? Two
How many veins does the umbilical cord have? One
How does the fetal heart pump de-oxygenated blood? Via the umbilical arteries
How does the fetus gain nutrients? Mothers blood
Does maternal blood mix with fetal blood? No
Describe fraternal twins Two eggs, two sperm, two placenta's
Describe identical twins One egg, one sperm that split in to two, share a placenta
How does fetal circulation work? Most of the blood bypasses the liver by flowing through the ductus venosus into the inferior vena cava
What flows through the two umbilical arteries and in to the placenta? Oxygen-depleted wast- filled blood
What does the placenta do? Cleanses the blood, ridding it of CO2 & waste products
How does the fetus receive the cleansed, oxygenated blood? Umbilical vein
When does the fetal heart beat begin? Day 22
What is quickening and when does it occur? Feeling of fetal movement in the 20th week
When is the fetal respiratory system capable of gas exchange? 28th week
How much does maternal blood volume increase? 30%-50%
How much does maternal cardiac input increase and when? 30%-40% by 27th week because the uterus demands more of the blood supply (HR increases at this time too)
What are three possible triggers to the onset of labor? Decline in progesterone, release of Oxtocin, uterine stretching
What is the first stage of labor and how long does it typically last? Dilation / 6-18hrs
What are the key features of 1st stage of labor? Cervical effacement, cervical dilation, fetal membranes rupture
When is the cervix fully dilated? 4"/10cm
What is the 2nd stage of labor? Cervix is fully dilated and ends when baby is delivered
What is the 3rd stage of labor? Delivery of the placenta
What does the anterior pituitary do? Stimulates prolactin, which stimulates milk production
What does the posterior pituitary do? Stimulates Oxytocin, which stimulates milk secretion
What is heredity? Process of passing traits from biological parents to children
What is genetics? Study of inheritance
What is genes? Segments of DNA that contains traits that each person inherits
What is genome? Complete set of genetic information for one person
What is chromosome? Long strands of tightly coiled DNA found in the cells nucleus
What is autosomes? Each pair of chromosomes consist of a chromosome inherited from the mother and a chromosome from the father (non-sex chromosomes)
What is a child's sex determined by? Presence or absence of certain chromosomes
Who does the child get his genetic information from? Mother and father
What is locus? Location of a specific gene on a chromosome
Does the locus of each gene vary from one person to another? No; allows the genes supplied by the egg to align with the similar genes supplied by the sperm
What is Homozygous? Possessing similar alleles at a given locus
What is Heterozygous? Possessing different alleles at a given locus
What happens when an allele for brown eyes is paired with an allele for blue eyes? Offspring will have brown eyes
What does an dominant allele do? Overshadows the affect of a recessive allele; Offspring express the trait of a dominant allele if both, or only one, chromosome in a pair carries it
What does a recessive allele do? Both chromosomes must carry identical alleles
What a equally dominant alleles called? Co dominant alleles
What is mutation? Permanent change in genetic material
What is autosomal dominant inheritance? In a single gene disorder when the defective allele is dominant, it overrides the normally functioning allele & the disorder results
What is the % (chance) when the child receives one copy of the gene from both mother and father 50%
What is autosomal recessive inheritance? Offspring must inherit two copies of the defective allele before the disorder manifest itself.
What happens to a child who inherits a single copy of the allele? Become a carrier of the disorder (won't develop disorder, but can pass it on the their children)
Created by: tandkhopkins



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