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Chapter6 Rubenstein


Universalizing Religions A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
Ethnic Religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Branch A large and fundamental division within a religion
Denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Monotheism The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
Polytheism Belief in or worship of more than one god
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life
Pagan A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
Missionary An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Ghetto During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Pilgrimage A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Cosmogony A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Solstice Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator.
Diocese The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church.
Autonomous Religions A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Caste The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Hierarchical Religion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places.
Christianity Branches Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant
Five Pillars of Islam Fundamental beliefs and practices that include 1. Belief in Allah as the one and only God, 2. Praying 5 times a day facing Makkah, 3. Giving charity, 4. Fasting during Ramadan, 5. Once a lifetime pilgrimage to Makkah.
Four Noble Truths Basic concepts of Buddhism that include 1. all people suffer, 2. Suffering leads to reincarnation, 3. Main goal is to end the cycle of reincarnation by achieving Nirvana, 4. Nirvana is reached by following the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path In Buddhism the Eightfold Path includes rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.
Sikkism and Baha'i Two universalizing religions smaller than Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. Read about them on p. 188.
Muhammad Prophet of Islam, brought the word of Allah to the people of Arabia when the Angel Gabriel spoke to him of Allah's purpose.
Jesus Believed by Christians to be the son of God whose teachings were spread throughout the world after his crucifixion by his 12 disciples
Abraham Judaism, Christianity and Islam trace their beginnings to him
Siddhartha Gautama Founder of Buddhism
Hinduism There is no one founder of Hinduism, but it is believed to have originated earlier than all other religions in India, brought by the Aryans from Central Asia
Shintoism Major religion of Japan, derived from Buddhism.
Diaspora Greek word for the forced migration of Jews out of the Holy Land (Palestine/Israel) when the Roman Empire could not stop the Jews from rebelling.
Ganges Holy river in India for Hindus
Solar Calendar Used by some universalizing religions with 12 months of 30 or 31 days with some variations.
Lunar Calendar Used by many ethnic religions because of the constant and mystical variations of its phases.
Places of worship Church, basilica, mosque, temple, pagoda, synagogue, tabernacle, shrine, cathedral, chapel, sacristy
Created by: WestonSandfort
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