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Chapter 13

The Peripheral Nervous System/Reflex Activity

the peripheral nervous system includes ___ neural structures outside the brain & spinal cord
the neural structures outside the brain & spinal cord include: sensory receptors, ganglia, peripheral nerves & motor endings
the PNS allows your brain to: respond
sensory receptors are classified by: stimulus, location & structure
mechanoreceptors force - such as pressure, touch, vibration
thermoreceptors responds to: temperature changes
photoreceptors responds to light
chemoreceptors responds to chemicals - such as taste & smell
noicereceptors pain receptors - respond to damage from tissue
tactile, merkel cells & meissners corpuscles are __ touch light
which type of receptor does not adapt? pain
pacianian corpuscles are a __ touch deep
the 1st two pair cranial nerves attach to the ___ while the other 10 attach to the: Forebrain - Brain stem
olfactory nerve smell - sensory function
the names of the cranial nerves reveal ___ or either ___ structure - function
optic nerve vision - sensory function
oculomotor nerve eye mover - motor function
trochlear nerve eye movement - motor function
trigeminal nerve general nerve of face - mixed function
what is the largest cranial nerve? trigeminal
the trigeminal is separated into 3 divisions. what are they? opthalamic, maxillary, and mandibular
abducens nerve turns eye laterally, controls eye muscle - motor function
facial nerve facial expression - mixed function
the facial nerve includes: temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical
vestibulocochlear nerve hearing & balance: equilibrium - sensory
glossopharyngeal nerve taste & swallowing - mixed function
vagus nerve heart rate, breathing and digestion - mixed function
accessory nerve controls muscles in head movement - mixed function
hypoglossal nerve innervates tongue muscles -motor function
exterocepters detects external change
interoceptors detects internal change
propioceptors responds to change in shape - inform the brain of movement
what is the only cranial nerve to extend beyond the head & neck? vagus nerve
the ___ nerve is considered an accessory part of the vagus Accessory
what nerve comes from the spinal cord? accessory nerve
touch, pressure and pain are examples of a ___ receptor. exteroceptors
chemical change and tissue stretch are examples of what type of receptor? interoceptors
this receptor activity can cause us to feel pain, thirst or hunger. interoceptor
this receptor occurs in skeletal muscle, tendons, joints & ligaments. propioceptors
sensation awareness of stimulus
perception interpretation of stimulus
perception determines: how we will respond
pain receptors are activated by: temperature, pressure & chemical released by injured tissue
we all have the same pain threshold it is our ___ ___ that differs pain tolerance
sensory perception includes: pattern recognition, magnitude estimation, feature abstraction & spacial discrimination
groups of cell bodies in the PNS are called: ganglia
axons are covered by what type of tissue? endoneurium
fasiscles are covered by what type of tissue? perineum
a nerve is surrounded by what type of tissue? epineurium
nerves are classified according to the ___ they transmit impulses direction
mixed nerves contains sensory & motor fibers - transmit impulses to & from CNS
sensory nerves carry impulses toward CNS
motor nerves carry impulses away from CNS
another word for sensory nerves is: afferent
another word for motor nerves is: efferent
mechanically-gated chemicals open in response to: physical stretching of membrane
ligand-gating chemicals open when: damaged tissue releases histamine or potassium ions
___ cells help nerves regenerate schwann
if you have a greater potential, it has to reach ___ threshold
reflexes can be ___ or ___ inborn (intrinsic) - learned (acquired)
inborn (intrinsic) reflex rapid, involuntary
learned (acquired) reflex practice/repetition
what are the 5 components of a reflex arc? receptor. sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron & effector
receptor site of the stimulus action
sensory neuron transmit afferent impulses to CNS
integration center relays the info
motor neuron conducts efferent impulses from integration center to effector organ
effector responds to motor impulses by contracting or secreting
the nervous system needs to know what 2 things to coordinate the activity of skeletal muscles? length of muscle & muscle tension
the length of the muscle comes from muscle spindles which: causes contraction
the amount of tension in muscle comes from tendon organs which causes: muscle relaxation
what reflex helps keep your knees form buckling when standing or walking? knee-jerk reflex
the stretch reflex maintains: muscle tone & posture
the tendon stretch is the stimulation of tendon organs by ___ which causes ___ excessive tension - muscle relaxation
___ helps prevents muscles & tendons from tearing when force is applied tendon stretch
this reflex is initiated by painful stimuli and causes automatic withdrawal if threatened body part by stimulus. withdrawal reflex
cervical plexus innervates the: skin, muscles of the ear back, shoulders & head
the cervical plexus consists of the ___ nerve phrenic
phrenic nerve innervates the: diaphragm - C3, 4, 5
brachial plexus innervates the: upper limb
lumbar plexus innervates abdominal wall, thigh
the most intrinstic muscle of the body is ulnar nerve
the longest thickest nerve of the body is: sciatic
the cervical plexus is numbered: C1-C4
the lumbar plexus is numbered: L1-L4
Oculomotor nerve number: III
Optic nerve is number: II
Olfactory nerve is number: I
Trochlear nerve is number: IV(4)
Trigeminal nerve is number: V(5)
Abducens nerve is number: VI(6)
Facial nerve is number: VII(7)
Vestibulocochlear nerve is number: VIII(8)
Glossopharygneal nerve is number: IX(9)
Vagus nerve is number: X(10)
Accessory nerve is number: XI(11)
Hypoglossal nerve is number: XII(12)
Created by: Mariahj25



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