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Body Book Ch 18 & 19

Ch 18 Digestive system & Ch 19 Nutrition

Gastrointestinal Tract (GI); an irregular tube that opens at both ends Alimentary canal
The breakdown is chemical and mechanical
Digestion is necessary because food molecules cannot be absorbed or digested
Digestion alters the chemical and physical composition of food so it can be absorbed and used by cells
when food is chewed then formed in small mass to be swallowed Bolus
also known as oral cavity; hollow chamber with a roof, floor, & walls Mouth
formed by hard palate; located anterior or front of mouth Roof
mostly muscle; located posterior or back of mouth Soft palate
a downward projection of the soft palate Uvula
prevent food & liquid from entering nasal cavities; assist in speech & swallowing Uvula & soft palate
formed by tongue & its’ muscles Floor
Types of teeth Incisors, Canines, Premolars, Molars
also known as baby or primary teeth Deciduous
3 main parts of a tooth crown, neck, root
hardest material cover tooth in crown area Enamel
covered by enamel; make up most of the shell of the tooth Dentin
covered in cementum Neck
covers root & neck of tooth Cementum
white patches (smoker) Leukoplakia
caused by use of chewing tobacco; can cause tooth & gum decay Snuff dipper’s pouch
most common form of mouth cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma
another word for cavity Dental caries
gum inflammation or infection; turns into periodontitis Gingivitis
caused by yeast like fungal organism Thrush or oral candidiasis
inflammation of periodontal membrane; UNTREATED GINGIVITIS LEADS TO Periodontitis
3 pairs of salivary glands parotid, submandibular, sublingual
largest salivary glands; inflamed in mumps Parotid glands
inside on both sides Submandibular glands
under the tongue Sublingual glands
contains salivary amylase; begins digestion of carbohydrates Salvia
muscular tube (throat); functions as part of both respiratory & digestive systems Pharynx
hollow space within the “tube” of the digestive tract Lumen
4 tissue layers mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Mucosa coats lining of alimentary canal
connective tissue Submucosa
2 layers of smooth muscle; rhythmic muscular waves known as peristalsis Muscularis
long collapsible; connects pharynx to stomach Esophagus
prevents air from entering tube during respiration Upper esophageal sphincter (UES)
prevents backflow of stomach contents Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
GERD Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
backflow of acidic stomach contents into esophagus GERD
stomach pushes through the gap or hiatus Hiatal hernia
pouch for food Stomach
contraction of muscular walls of stomach mixes food with gastric juice & breaks it down into Chyme
mucous membrane lines the stomach & lies in folds called Rugae
3 divisions of stomach fundus, body, pylorus
retain food (keeps food in stomach) Pyloric sphincter
seen in infants; prevents food from leaving & going to the small intestine; abnormal spasms of the pyloric sphincter Pylorospasm
open crater like wound Ulcer
can cause CA (cancer) Helicobacter pylori
microscopic finger-shaped projections that covers the folds & INCREASES SURFACE AREA OF SMALL INTESTINE Villi
3 sections of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
c shaped; where most of chemical digestion occurs Duodenum
Occasionally a gallstone may block the duct that drains through the duodenal opening causing severe pain, jaundice, may need surgery
intestinal inflammation Enteritis
inflammation of stomach & intestines Gastroenteritis
group of symptoms resulting from failure to absorb nutrients properly Malabsorption syndrome
deficit of digestive enzymes Maldigestion
largest gland; classifies as exocrine gland; secretes/produces bile Liver
drains bile from liver Hepatic duct
duct by which bile enters & leaves gallbladder Cystic duct
hepatic & cystic ducts form Common bile
stores bile Gallbladder
breaks up fat &goes through hepatic & common bile duct NOT cystic duct Bile
CCK; a hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder to release bile into duodenum Cholecystokin
clumps of material gallstones
condition of having gallstones Cholelithiasis
inflammation of the gallbladder Cholecystitis
Stones can obstruct bile canals causing jaundice
liver inflammation Hepatitis
no vaccine Hep C
have vaccines Hep A & Hep B
degeneration of liver tissue Cirrhosia
is a exocrine & endocrine gland Pancreas
pancreas has pancreatic islets
inflammation of pancreas pancreatitis
thick secretions block flow of pancreatic juice; inherited disorder cystic fibrosis
very serious; fatal in the majority of cases pancreatic cancer
large intestine 1 cecum
large intestine 2 ascending colon
Bend that joins ascending colon to transverse colon hepatic flexure
large intestine 3 transverse colon
Bend that joins transverse colon to descending colon splenic flexure
large intestine 4 descending colon
undigested & unabsorbed food enter large intestine after passing through ileocecal valve
function of large intestine container where water & electrolytes can be reabsorbed into blood
bacteria in large intestine manufactures Vit K & some Vit B complex
increased intestinal motility; moves to quickly diarrhea
decreased intestinal motility; moves to slow constipation
disorders of the large intestine diarrhea & constipation
inflammation or infection of appendix Appendicitis
large sheet of serous membrane Peritoneum
lines abdominal cavity Parietal layer of peritoneum
covers abdominal organs Visceral layer of peritoneum
shaped like a pleated fan Mesentery
lace apron Greater omentum
inflammation of peritoneum Peritonitis
abnormal accumulation of fluid in peritoneal space Ascites
process of physical & chemical changes that prepare food for absorption Digestion
chewing, swallowing, & peristalsis break food into tiny particles, mix them well with digestive juices, & move them along the digestive tract Mechanical digestion
breaks up large food molecules into compounds having smaller molecules Chemical digestion
protein molecules that act as catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions Enzymes
In chemical digestion specific enzymes speed up breakdown of specific molecules & no others
enzymes speed up reactions that add water to break large molecules into smaller molecules Hydrolysis
BEGINS IN THE SMALL INTESTINE; end result: simple sugars (glucose) Carbohydrate digestion
begins in the stomach & completed in small intestine; end product: amino acids Protein digestion
protein building blocks Amino acids
end product of fatty fat digestion acids & glycerol
digested food moves from intestine into blood or lymph; is just as important as digestion Absorption
food we eat & nutrients they contain nutrition
process of using nutrient ongoing, remodeling, & maintenance charaterezes all life metabolism
RELEASES ENERGY; part of metabolism; breaks LARGER molecules down TO SMALLER ones catabolism
SMALLER molecules INTO LARGER complex molecules; DOES NOT RELEASE ENERGY anabolism
both work together to make up the process of metabolism catabolism & anabolism
secretes bile to help digest lipids; processes blood immediately after it leaves the gastrointestinal tract; helps maintain normal blood glucose concentration; removes toxins from the blood & poisonous substances; stores some vitamins, iron, & Vit A & D metabolic functions of the liver
are the preferred energy nutrient of the body carbohydrates
3 series of chemical reactions that occur in a precise sequence make up the process of glucose metabolism
occurs in cytoplasm of the cell glycolyses
direct sources of energy ATP molecules
uses no oxygen anaerobic process
uses oxygen aerobic
amount of glucose in blood; normal 80 to 110mg blood glucose (blood sugar)
occurs most often in humans glucose catabolism
first step of glucose catabolism & releases small amount of energy that requires no oxygen glycolysis
is the only hormone that regulates blood glucose level insulin
you have diabetes hyposecreation of insulin
if body does not release enough insulin patient can have diabetes
because insulin lowers hyperglycemia
4 most important hormones that increase blood glucose hydrocortisone, epinephrine, glucagon, growth hormones
secreted by adrenal cortex hydrocortisone
secreted by adrenal medulla epinephrine
by pancreatic islets raises glucose level glucagon
by anterior pituitary gland raises glucose levels growth hormones
why does a low carb diet reduces amount of fat in the body with no carbohydrates to convert to at & storethe body relies on fat to supply energy
the body can store fat soluble vitamins like A, D, E, & K in the liver for later use but can not store Vitamin C
can lead to scurvy Vit C defeceincy
the inability of the body to manufacture & maintain collagen fibers; body just falls apart scurvy
rate of which nutrients are catabolized, tha number of calories of heat that must be produced per hour by catabolism just to keep the body alive, awake, & comfortable Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the total amounts of energy, expressed in calories, used by the body per day Total Metabolic Rate (TMR)
is less that TMR BMR
PCM Protein-Calorie Malnutrition
type of advanced PCM caused by an overall lack of calories & proteins marasmus
type of advanced PCM caused by lack of protein in the presense of sufficient calories Kwashiorkor
4 ways heat is lost through the skin radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation
flow of heat waves from blood or body radiation
transfer of heat to skin conduction
transfer to air convection
absorption of heat by water (sweat) evaporation
increase in temp helps immune system fight pathogens
results from loss of fluid as the body tries to cool itself, may be accompanied by heat cramps heat exhaustion
overheating of the body heat stroke
reduced body temperature hypothermia
local tissue damage caused by extreme cold; may result in necrosis or gangrene frostbite
hypothermia causes frostbite not hyperthermia
raises blood sugar levels glucogon & growth hormone
rise in temp to helps immune system fight pathogens fever
autoimmune colon disease Crohns disease
Created by: Stacey_Gantt5
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