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A&P Chapter 17

The Respiratory System

What structures do the URT contain? Everything located outside of the thoracic cavity; from the larynx up
What structures do the LRT contain? Everything located inside the thoracic cavity; from the trachea down
What is the purpose of the nasal cavity? Moisten and warm inhaled air, mucus in the nasal cavity collects inhaled dust, preventing it from entering the lungs
What Is the pharynx? Muscular tube, commonly called the "throat"
What structures are in the pharynx? Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, & Laryngopharynx
What is the nasopharynx? Lies just behind the soft palate, contains openings for the Eustachian tubes
What is the Oropharynx? Space between the soft palate and base of the tongue; contains tonsils
What is the Laryngopharynx? Passes dorsal to the larynx & connects to the esophagus
What does the larynx do? Prevent food & liquids from entering the trachea; acts a passageway between the pharynx and trachea; also produces sound
What is the trachea? Large tube supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage; often called the windpipe
What is the epiglottis responsible for? Directing food and liquids into the esophagus during swallowing.
What do the vestibular folds do? Prevent food from entering the airway
What are the Bronchi? Large tubes (one for each lung) that serve as a passageway for air
How many lobes does the right lung have? Three
How many lobes does the left lung have? Two - to allow room for the heart
What is the result of the right bronchus being wider & more vertical than the left? It is the most likely location for aspirated (inhaled) food particles and small objects to lodge
What is the Carina? Cartilaginous ridge at the end of the trachea
What are the bronchioles? Small airways that lack supportive cartilage
Why do the lung passages exist? To serve the alveoli
What occurs within the alveoli? Gas exchange
What are the alveoli wrapped in? Fine mesh of capillaries that allow for efficient gas exchange
What must happen before a gas enters or leaves a cell? Must be dissolved in a liquid
What is the alveolus coated in? Thin layer of fluid
What does the thin layer of fluid that coats the alveolus contain? Surfactant
What is the purpose of surfactant? Helps reduce the surface tension (for of attraction between water molecules) to keep the alveolus form collapsing as air moves in & our during respiration
What is the pleura? Space between the visceral & parietal pleurae; the two membranes are normally separated only by a film of slippery pleural fluid
What are the two parts of pulmonary ventilation? Inspiration & expiration
What do both inspiration & expiration depend on? Respiratory muscles; mainly the diaphragm Difference between air pressure within the lungs and outside the body
What respiratory muscles are used during inspiration? External intercostal pull the ribs upward & outward; internal intercostals help elevate the ribs; the diaphragm contracts, flattens & drops, pressing the abdominal organs downward and enlarging the thoracic cavity. Air rushes in
During times of forced/labored breathing, what accessory muscles of respiration assist with breathing? Sternocleidomastoids & scalenes (muscles of neck), pectoralis minor (chest muscle) contact to help elevate the chest
What is the inspiration center & where is it located? Primary respiratory center located in the medulla
What is the pneumatacic center? Prevents lung overinflation
What is the expiratory center and where is it located? Used for forceful exhalations located in the medulla
What are the factors that influence breathing? Oxygen levels, hydrogen ions (pH), stretch, pain & emotion, irritants
What happens when a persons O2 levels get low? Peripheral chemoreceptors (in corotid & aortic bodies) detect low blood levels of oxygen & signal the medulla to increase rate & depth of respirations to bring in more oxygen
What drives pressure & airflow? Atmospheric pressure
What are the factors that affect airflow? Pulmonary compliance (elasticity), alveolar surface tension (the inner surface of each alveoli) is covered with a thin film of water, which is necessary for gas exchange
What is a pneumothorax? When thoracic wall is punctured, causing negative pressure which causes thelung recoil & collapse
What is tidal volume? Amount of air inhaled and exhaled during quiet breathing
What is inspiratory reserve volume? Amount of air inhaled using maximum effort after normal inspiration
What is apnea? Temporary cessation of breathing
What is dyspnea? Labored or difficulty breathing
What is hyperventilation? Increased rate & depth of respirations, resulting in lowered blood levels of CO2; often results from anxiety
What is orthopnea? Labored breathing that occurs when the a person is lying down flat but improves when standing or sitting up; classic symptom of left ventricular failure
What does gas exchange depend on? Differences in pressure
Explain gas exchange The partial pressures of O2 & CO2 vary between the air we breathe, the alveoli, arterial blood, and venous blood. These variations in pressure allow the body to absorb oxygen and expel CO2
What is the primary regulator of respiration? Carbon dioxide
What is the primary way that O2 is transported in the blood? In the form of oxyhemoglobin
How is most of the CO2 in the body transported? In the form of bicarbonate ions
Created by: tandkhopkins



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