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module 12 A&P

Respiratory System

bronchioles small airways that lack supportive cartilage
alveoli where gas exchange takes place
trachea large tube supported by c-shaped rings of cartilage; often called the "windpipe"
pharynx muscular tube commonly called the throat
carina cartilaginous ridge at the end of the trachea
larynx acts as the passageway between the pharynx and trachea; also produces sound
bronchi large tubes (one for each lung) that serve as a passageway for air
hyperventilation increased rate and depth of respirations resulting in lowered blood levels of carbon dioxide, often results from anxiety
apnea temporary cessation of breathing
orthopnea labored breathing that occurs when a person is lying flat but improves when standing or sitting up
dyspnea labored or difficult breathing
what is the main muscle responsible for pulmonary ventilation? diaphragm
which of the following is NOT a function of the larynx? connects to the esophagus
A patient is experiencing low blood levels of oxygen. Which of the following processes are most likely to occur? Peripheral chemoreceptors will detect the falling oxygen levels and send impulses to increase the rate and depth of breathing
If someone experiences a traumatic injury that punctures the thoracic wall, what will happen? the lung will collapse
based on your knowledge of the anatomy of the lower respiratory tract, where is the most likely location for an aspirated (inhaled) piece of food to lodge and why? the right bronchus, because it is slightly winder and more vertical than the left bronchus
what is the purpose of surfactant? to reduce surface tension to keep the alveolus from collapsing during respiration
How is most of the carbon dioxide in the body transported? Carried in the form of bicarbonate ioins
You notice that a patient's sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles are contracting with respirations. What should you conclude based on this observance? The patient is using his accessory muscles to inhale
nasopharynx lies just behind the soft palate. Contains openings for the Eustachian tubes
Oropharynx Space between the soft palate and the base the tongue. Contains tonsils.
Laryngopharynx Passes dorsal to the larynx and connects to the esophagus
lungs right side has 3 lobes; left side has 2 lobes (room for heart)
differences in right and left bronchus... right is slightly wider and more vertical than the left, making this the most likely location for aspirated food particles
why do the lung passages exist ? to serve the alveoli
where does gas exchange occur? in the alveoli
what are the alveoli wrapped in? a fine mesh of capillaries
What must happen before gas can enter or leave a cell? must be dissolved in a liquid
what does the fluid that is inside of each alveolus contain surfactant
what is the purpose of surfactant? helps reduce surface tension and keep the alveolus from collapsingas air moves in and out during respiration
plureural cavity the small space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
main muscle responsible for pulmonary ventilation
external intercostals muscles pull the ribs upward and outward
internal intercostals help elevate the ribs; the diaphragm contracts, flattens, and drops
inspiratory center primary respiratory center; contained in the medulla
pneumotaxic center prevents lung overinflation
expiratory center used for forceful exhalations; contained in the medulla
oxygen levels... peripheral chemoreceptors detect low blood levels of oxygen and signal medulla to increase rate and depth of respirations to bring in more oxygen
atmospheric pressure... drives respiration
factors that affect airflow pulmonary compliance, alveolar surface tension
the inner surface of each alveoli is covered with a thin film of water, which... is necessaary for gas exchange
tidal volume amount of air inhaled and exhaled during quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume amount of air inhaled using maximum effort after a normal inspiration
apnea temporary cessation of breathing
dyspnea labored or difficult breathing
hyperventilation increased rate and depth of respirations, resulting in lowered blood levels of carbon dioxide; often results from anxiety
orthopnea labored breathing that occurs when a person is lying flat but improves when standing or sitting up; a classic symptom of left ventricular failure
the variations of WHAT allow the body to absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide pressure
the primary regulator of respiration carbon dioxide... not oxygen!
what forms in the lungs oxyhemoglobin
% carried as bicarbonate ions 70%
Created by: Ahowerton



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