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Module 12 A&P

Respiratory System

nasal cavity moistens and warms inhaled air
mucous in nasal cavity collects inhaled dust, preventing it from entering the lungs
pharynx muscular tube commonly called the throat
nasopharynx lies just behind the soft plate, contains openings for the Eustachian tubes
oropharynx space between the soft plate and the base of the tongue, contains tonsils
laryngopharynx passes dorsal to the larynx and connects to the esophagus
larynx prevents foods and liquids from entering the trachea; acts as a passageway between the pharynx and trachea , also produces sound
trachea large tube supported by c shaped rings of cartilage; often called "windpipe"
epiglottis responsible for directing food and liquids into the esophagus during swallowing
vestibular folds prevents food from entering the airway
bronchi large tubes (one for each lung)that serve as a passage way for air
lungs right side has three lobes, left side has two (room for the heart)
right bronchus slightly wider and more vertical than left,making most likely location for inhaled food particles to lodge
carina cartilaginous ridge at the end of the trachea
bronchioles small airways that lack supportive cartilage
with thin the alveoli .... gas exchanges occur
alveoli wrapped in fine mesh of capillaries
pleural cavity space between the visceral and parietal pleurae
diaphragm main muscle responsible for pulmonary ventilation
inspiration external intercostal muscle pull the ribs up and out, internal costals help elevate ribs, diaphragm contracts, pressing abdominal organs down and enlarging thoracic cavity, air rushes in
expiration internal intercostals muscle relax, diaphragm relaxes, bulging up and pressing against base of lungs, reduce size of thoracic cavity, air pushes out
during times of forced or labored breathing... accessory muscles of respiration assist with breathing
deep inspiration muscles in neck and chest contract to help elevate chest
inspiratory center primary respiratory center, contained in medulla
pneumotaxic center prevents lung over inflation
expiratory center contained in medulla
oxygen levels peripheral chemoreceptors detect low blood levels of oxygen and signal medulla to increase rate and depth of respiration to bring in more oxygen
atmospheric pressure..... drives respiration
factors that affect airflow pulmonary compliance and alveolar surface tension
alveolar surface tension inner surface of each alveoli is covered that a thin film of water, which is necessary for gas exchange
pneumothorax if thoracic was is punctured air from the atmosphere will rush into pleural cavity, transform what is normally potential space to space filled with air
tidal volume amount of air inhaled and exhaled during quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume amount of air inhaled using maximum effort after a normal inspiration
apnea temporary cessation of breathing
dyspnea labored or difficult breathing
hyperventilation increased rate and depth of respiration,resulting in lowered blood levels of carbon dioxide; often results from aniety
orthopnea labored breathing that occurs when a persons is lying flat but improves when standing or sitting up; claasic symptom of ventricular failure
the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide vary between... air we breath, alveoli, arterial blood, and venous blood, these variations in pressure allow body to absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide is the primary regulator of respiration
oxygen transports.... in form of oxyhemoglobin
transport of carbon dioxide..... carried as bicarbonate ions
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne



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