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Module 11

The Lympahatic and immune system

Receive rabies serum after being bitten by a stray dog. Artificial passive immunity
Person receives immunization Artificial active immunity
Person develops immunity after having a disease Natural active immunity
From mother to newborn Natural passive immunity
Inhibits the reproduction of bacteria and viruses elevated body temperature
The location of the spleen the upper left quadrant of the abdomen
IgG The most abundant immunoglobulin
mucous membranes of the respiratory tract repeal pathogens because they produce mucus, which traps pathogens
Not a sign of infection Pus
Has a role in blood storage Spleen
First line of defense skin and mucous membranes
Third line of defense body retains a memory of a pathogen after defeating it.
Second line of defense Mechanisms present at birth
Immunity, absorption of fats, and the maintenance of fluid balance The key functions of the lymphatic system
Tissue fluid left behind following capillary exchange Forms the basis of lymphatic fluid
Thymus lymphatic organ the T cells mature in
The removal of pathogens and foreign material from lymphatic fluid main function of lymph nodes
Neutrophils important white blood cell what travels throughout the bloodstream seeking out bacteria.
Artificial active immunity immunity from a tetanus shot
Spleen Contributes to immunity by screening passing blood for foreign antibodies
Antigen A substance capable of causing a disease
Cellular immunity Uses T cells to destroy pathogens within a cell
Humoral immunity Triggers the production of antibodies to fight pathogens
Maintenance of fluid balance, absorption of fats, immunity Functions of the lymphatic system
Lymph A clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma but with a lower protein content.
lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphatic tissue, and lymphatic organs.
Away from the tissues lymphatic vessels carry fluid in one direction only
immune cells the tissues and organs of the lymphatic system produce this
Maintenance of fluid balance Lymph fluid id formed from tissue fluid left behind after capillary exchange. Absorbs fluid not reabsorbed by the capillaries and returns it to the bloodstream.
Absorption of fats Specialized lymphatic vessels in the small intestines absorb fats and fat-soluble viamins
immunity Lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs filter lymph to remove microorganisms and foreign particles.
Lymphatic vessels have thin walls and valves to prevent backflow
Rhythmic contractions of the lymphatic vessels Fluid moves passively aided by?
Contraction of skeletal muscles Flow is aided further by?
respiration causes pressure changes that help propel lymph from the abdominal to the thoracic cavity.
Right lymphatic ducts drains lymph for the upper right quadrant of the body into the right subclacian veins.
thoracic ducts drain lymph from the rest of the body into the left subclavian
Primary lymphatic organs Red bone marrow, thymus
Secondary lymphatic organs lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen
Peyer's patches lymphatic nodules in the small intestines
Germinal centers form and release lymphocytes when an infection is present
hundreds of lymph nodes the body contains
remove pathogens from lymph the primary function of the lymph nodes
Pharyngeal tonsil sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity
adenoids pharyngeal tonsils
a fist the size of a spleen
spleen the bodies largest organ
location of spleen the upper left quadrant of the abdomen
Immunity, descruction of old red blood cells, blood storage, hematopoiesis Spleen function
spleen immunity Screen blood for foreign antigens; ingest and destroy any microorganisms
destruction of old red blood cells (spleen) Digest worn out RBCs and imperfect platelets, recycle hemoglobin, salvaging iron and globin-returning it to the bone marrow and liver for later use.
Blood storage (spleen) Helps stabilize blood volume by rapidly adding blood back into general ciculation. Stores 20%-30% of the body's patelets.
Immune systems three line of defense First: external barriers Second: nonspecific immunity Third: specific immunity
First: external barriers Skin and mucous membranes
Second: nonspecific immunity mechanisms present at birth
Third: specific immunity Body retains a memory of a pathogen after defeating it
External barriers nonspecific immunity; the mucus membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts (which are open to the exterior) produce mucus that physically traps pathogens.
Lysozyme mucus, tears, and saliva contain this enzyme
Phagocytosis Ingest and destroy; most important ones are the neutrophils and macropages
Antimicrobial proteins interferons, complement system
Natural killer cells Group of lymphocytes that seek out and destroy foreign cells
Inflammation Stimulates the body's defense system to begin fighting the infection while instigating measures to contain the pathogen. Redness, swelling, heat, and pain are the four classic signs
Fever An abnormal elevation of boy temperature, promotes the activity of interferon, inhibits the reproduction of bacteria and viruses
external barriers, phagocytosis, antimicrobial proteins, natural killer cells, inflammation, fever Nonspecific immunity includes:
phagocyte cells sole job is to ingest and destroy microorganisms and other small particles
neutrophils, macropages The most important phagocytes
neutrophils roam the body...summoned to an infection by a chemical released from inflammed cells
macrophages remain fixed with in strategic areas...congregated in areas where microbial invasion is likely to occur (lungs, liver, bone, nerve tissue, spleen)
Interferons, complement system Antimicrobial proteins
complement system more than 20 different proteins circulate in the blood stream in inactive form.
Bacteria or antibodies against the bacteria, activate the complement
complement reaction continues as a cascade of chemical reactions, with one complement protein activating the next. eventually holes are punched in the bacterium and it sells and bursts.
Interons binds to the surface receptors on the neighboring cells triggering the production of enzymes with in the cells that would prevent the virus from replicating.
Natural killer cells Unique group of lymphocytes, roam the body, recognize and destroy any foreign cells, use several methods to destroy cells, most involve the secretion of chemicals that causes the cell to die and break apart.
Swelling, redness, heat and pain Classic signs of inflammation
Pyrogen leads the body to reset the temperature set point.
Fever is beneficial it promotes the activity of interferon and inhibts the reproduction of bacteria and viruses
pyrexia fever; an abnormal elevation of body temperature
Specific immunity Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity, humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity T cells; aims to destroy foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen
Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity B cells; focuses on pathogens outside the host cells; it sends out antibodies to "mark" a pathogen for later destruction.
Cellular immunity and humoral immunity both systems use lymphocytes and antibodies
Natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes Lymphocytes fall into one of three classes:
T lymphocytes Develop in bone marrow, mature in thymus
B lymphocytes Develop in bone marrow; remain there until fully mature
antibodies also known as immunogloblin
IgG makes up 80% of all circulating antibodies
Cellular immunity destroys pathogens within a cell, uses three classes of T cells cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and memory T cells
Helper T cells Play a supportive role; secrete chemicals that summon neutrophils and natural killer cells
Humoral immunity Focuses on pathogens outside the cell, uses antibodies to mark antigen for later destruction (antibodies use a range of tactics to defeat antigens(prevent the antigen from attaching to a human cell, triggering agglutination, and the complement cascade.))
Allergic reaction Upon first exposure, body produces IgE, mast cells release histamine
IgE body produces this during an allergic reaction
Anaphylaxis a severe, immediate allergic reaction that affects the whole body.
Active, Passive Types of immunity
Active immunity when the body makes its own antibodies or T cells. Permanent or at least long lasting.
Passive immunity when immunity results from an injection of antibodies from another person or animal (or antibodies from mother to fetus). Immunity last only a few months.
Hypersensitivity Inappropriate or excessive response of the immune system (allergic reaction)
Created by: JoAnna_Crafton



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