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A&P Chapter 16

Lymphatic & Immune System

What are the three main functions of the Lymphatic System? Maintenance of fluid balance, absorption of fats, & immunity
What is fluid balance in the lymphatic system? Lymph fluid is formed from tissue left behind after capillary exchange; absorbs fluid not reabsorbed by the capillaries & returns it to the bloodstream
Define lymph? A clear, colorless fluid similar to plasma but with a lower protein content
What direction does lymph flow in? Flows in only one direction; away from the tissues
Describe the lymphatic vessels Filled with lymph, have thin walls & valves to prevent back flow. Formed by a thin layer of epithelial cells
How does the fluid move in the lymphatic system? Fluid moves passively, aided by the rhythmic contraction of skeletal muscles (respiration causes pressure changes that help propel lymph from the abdomen to the thoracic cavity
What are the two collecting ducts in the Lypmhatic system? Right Lymphatic duct & Thoracic duct
Where does the right lymphatic duct drain from and to? Drains from the URQ of the body into the right subclavian vein
Where does the thoracic duct drain from and to? Drains from the rest of the body into the subclavian vein
What are the lymphatic nodules that reside in the small intestines called? Peyer's patches
What are the primary lymphatic organs? Red bone marrow & thymus; these provide a location for B and T lymphocytes to mature
What are the secondary lymphatic organs? Lymphnodes, tonsils, spleen; these contain lymphocytes that have matured in red bone marrow or the thymus
What are the lymphatic tissues that exist in masses called? Lymphatic nodules
What are examples of passages that open to the outside of the body that contain a covering of lymphocytes in there mucosa linings? Respiratory, digestive, urinary, & reproductive tracts
What are the functions of the lymph nodes? Remove pathogens from the lymph
What forms and releases lymphocytes when an infection is present? Germinal centers
What is the pharyngeal tonsil? (be able to locate) Single tonsil that sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity
What is another term for pharyngeal tonsil? Adenoid
Describe the spleen and its location It's approximately the size of a fist, it is the largest lymphatic organ and is located in the ULQ (inferior to the diaphragm)
What protects the spleen? Lower ribs
What are the spleens functions? Immunity, destruction of RBC's, & blood storage
What happens with immunity in the spleen? Screen blood for foreign antigen; ingest & destroy and microorgansisms
What happens with destruction of RBC's in the spleen? Digest worn out RBCs and imperfect platelets, recycle hemoglobin, salvaging iron & globin - returning it to the bone marrow and liver for later use
What happens with blood storage in the spleen? Helps stabilize blood volume by rapidly adding blood back into general circulation; stores 20%-30% of the body's platelets
What are the immune systems three lines of defense? External barriers; Nonspecific immunity, and specific immunity
What are the external barriers? Skin & mucous membranes
What is non-specific immunity? Mechanisms present at birth
What is specific immunity? Body retains a memory of a pathogen after defeating it
What does non-specific immunity do? Protects against a broad range of pathogens using a variety of mechanisms such as, external barriers, phagocytosis, and anti microbial proteins
Define external barriers in non-specific immunity Mucus membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, & reproductive tracts produce mucus that physically traps pathogens; mucus, tears, and saliva contain an enzyme called lysozyme which destroys bacteria
What is phagocytosis? Sole job is to ingest & destroy microorgansisms & other small particles
What are the most important phagocytes? Neurtophils & macrophages
What are the two types of proteins that help provide non-specific immunity against bacterial & viral invasion? Interferons & complement system
What is a neutrophil? Phagocyte that travel to sites of infection after being summoned by a chemical released from inflamed cells
What are interferons? Protein that binds to surface receptors on neighboring cells triggering production of enzymes within the cells that prevent a virus from replicating
What is the first step in the complement system? More that 20 different types off proteins (called complement) circulate in the blood steam in an inactive form
What is the second step in the complement system? Bacteria or antibodies against the bacteria, activate the compliment
What is the third step in the complement system? Complement reaction continues a cascade of chemical reactions; with one complement protein activating the next
What is the fourth step in the complement system? Eventually holes are punched in the bacterium and it swells and burst
Define natural killer cells? Unique group of lymphocytes; roam the body; most involve the secretion of chemicals that causes the cell to die and break apart
What are the classic signs of inflammation? Swelling, redness, heat & pain
What is another term for fever? Pyrexia
What does a fever do? Inhibits the reproduction of bacteria & viruses
What is a fever? Abnormal elevation of the body's temperature
Define specific immunity Directed against a specific pathogen
Describe cellular (cell-mediated) immunity Has T cells, aims to destroy foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen
Describe humoral (antiboy-mediated) immunity Has B cells, focuses on pathogens outside the host cells; it sends out antibodies to "mark" a pathogen for later destruction
Which specific immunity system uses lymphocytes and antibodies? Both - Cellular immunity & Humoral immunity
What are the two weapons used in the specific immunity process? T-cells & B-cells
What are the three classes of lymphocytes? Natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, & B lymphocytes
What are T lymphocytes? Develop in bone marrow & mature in the thymus
What are B lymphocytes? Develop in bone marrow & remain there until fully developed
What happens when a lymphocyte is mature? It migrates to lymphatic organs & tissues throughout the body
What is another name for antibodies? Immunoglobulins
What is the most abundant of all the immunoglobulins? IgG (makes up 80% of all circulating antibodies)
Describe cellular immunity Destroys pathogen within a cell
What are the three classes of T cells? Cytotoxic T cells, Memory T cells & Helper T Cells
What do the Helper T cells do? Play a supportive role; secrete chemicals that summon neutrophils and natural killer cells
What is Humoral Immunity? Focuses on pathogens outside the cell
How does humoral immunity work? Uses antibodies to mark antigen for later destruction
What range of tactics to antibodies use to defeat antigens? Prevent the antigen from attaching to a human cell; triggers agglutination; triggers the complement cascade of chemical reactions
What is anaphylaxis? A severe, immediate allergic reaction that affects the whole body
What happens when someone is exposed to an allergen? First exposure, body produces IgE, which makes the person sensitized Mast cells release histamine
What are the two different types of immunity? Active - permanent or at least long lasting Passive - Immunity last only a few months
Receive rabies serum after being bitten by stray dog Artificial passive immunity
Person receives immunization Artifical active immunity
Person develops immunity after having disease Natural active immunity
From mother to newborn Natural passive immunity
What is hypersensitivity? Inappropriate or excessive response of the immune system (allergic reaction)
Created by: tandkhopkins



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