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Module 10 A&P

Vascular system

TermDefinition
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins return blood to the heart
capillaries connect the smallest arteries (arterioles) to the smallest veins (venules)
tunica intima inner layer, helps prevent blood clots, produces chemicals that cause the blood vessels to dilate or constrict, lines all blood vessels
tunica media middle layer, allows blood vessels to change diameter
tunica externa outer layer, supports and protects blood vessels
conducting arteries (elastic arteries) closest to the heart, greatest ability to expand and recoil
distributing arteries deliver blood to specific organs
aterioles smallest arteries, dilate or constrict to maintain blood pressure
Venules smallest veins, collect blood from capillaries
categories of veins venules, medium sized, and large veins
capillaries hormones are transferred between blood and tissue, have thin walls, only in endothelium and basement membrane
capillaries are organized into networks called capillary beds
Filtration occurs close to the arterial side of the capillary bed
high pressure in capillaries pushes plasma and dissolve nutrients through capillary wall and into surround fluid
pulmonary circulation function to bring deoxygenated blood to the alveoli for gas exchange
pulmonary circulation blood flow right ventr-pulmonary arteries-lobar arteries-capillary bed-lobar veins-pulmonary vein-left artium
ascending aorta right and left coronary arteries branch off to supply blood to myocardium
abdominal aorta branches into the right and left common illiac arteries, which supply blood to the lower pelvis and the legs
aortic arch branches into three major arteries, brachiocephalic, common carotid, and left subclavian
superior and inferior mesenteric arteries supply blood to the small and large intestines
abdominal aorta and its branches supply blood to the abdomen and lower extremities and liver
common carotid arteries provide most of the brains blood supply
superior vena cava receives blood from above the heart
inferior vena cava receives blood from below the level of the heart
factors affecting blood pressure cardiac output, blood volume, resistance
peripheral resistance resistance to flow results from friction of blood against walls of vessels
amount of friction depends upon blood viscosity and vessel diameter
blood viscosity typically stable
vessel diameter adjusting diameter of the vessels is the body's chief way of controlling peripheral resistance
blood velocity diameter of vessel affects how fast blood flows
greater the diameter of vessel faster it flows
blood flows slowest in capillaries due to cross-sectional area and narrow diameter
neural regulation of blood pressure medulla sends impulses via autonomic nervous system to alter blood vessel diameter and therefore blood pressure
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne
 

 



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