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A&P 13,14, & 15

Blood, Heart & Vascular

What are the blood components? Plasma & formed elements
What is Plasma? Clear extra cellular matrix; accounts for 55% of blood
What are the formed elements made up of? RBC account for most of the formed elements
What is hematocrit? The % of red cells in a sample of blood; reveals how much oxygen the blood can carry
What is viscosity? Term used to describe the thickness or stickiness of blood
What is hemopoiesis? Production of blood
What are the two types of hemopoietic tissue? Red bone marrow & Lymphatic tissue
What is Red Bone Marrow & where is it found? Produces all types of blood cells (in adults, found in the ends of long bones & in flat irregular bones such as the sternum, cranial bones, vertebrae, & pelvis
What does Lypmhatic tissue produce? Lymphocytes
What are RBC called and what is their functions? Erythrocytes; deliver O2 & remove CO2
How much of the interior of a RBC is filled with hemoglobin? 1/3
What is hemoglobin? Red pigment that gives blood its color
What is the (mineral) oxygen-carrying component of hemoglobin? Iron; an adequate supply of dietary iron is crucial for hemoglobin synthesis
What is the lifecycle of RBC? O2 levels ⬇️, Kidneys secrete erythropoietin (EPO), bone marrow creates erythrocytes, reticulocytes are released, O2 levels go up; EPO & RBC production goes down
What are reticulocytes? Immature RBC's
What is the lifespan of an RBC 120 days
In what type of situation would a number of reticulocytes rise? Blood loss or moving to a higher altitude
What does hemoglobin breakdown to in the RBC? Globin & heme
What does the globin breakdown to in the RBC? Amino acids
What does the heme breakdown to in the RBC? Iron & bilirubin (Iron is transported to the bone marrow, where it's used to create new hemoglobin
What is it called when the the RBC's are destroyed? Hemolysis
What happens when hemolysis is excessive? The body can't readily assimilate the increased amounts of bilirubin being produced....causing the skin & sclera to take on a yellowish hue (jaundice)
What is another term for White Blood Cells (WBC)? Leukocytes
Leukocytes are the _________ of the formed elements? Fewest
What Granulocyte is involved in allergic reactions? (Shows up elevated in blood test) Eosinophils
What is the lifespan of the Agranulocytes? Years; has the longest lifespan
What is responsible for long-term immunity? Lymphocytes
What are some disorders of WBC? Leukemia - extremely high WBC Leukopenia - low WBC
What is another name for platelets? Thrombocytes
Give an example of vascular spasm When a blood vessel is cut, the body must react quickly to stop the flow of blood. As soon as the blood vessel is injured, smooth muscle fibers in the wall of the vessel spasm, which slows flow of blood.
Give an example of formation of platelet plug Breakdown of blood vessel exposes collagen fibers, creating a rough spot on the vessel's normally slick interior. The rough spot transforms into sticky platelets, which stick to the vessel wall & each other, forming a platelet plug. This is a temp seal
In the formation of a blood clot, what vitamin does the synthesis of clotting factors require? K
What is the process of clot dissolution called? Fibrinolysis
What type of antigen on the RBC determines blood type A? A antigen
What type of antigen on the RBC determines blood type B? B antigen
What type of antigen on the RBC determines blood type AB? Both A & B antigens
What type of antigen on the RBC determines blood type O? Neither, type O has no antigens
What carries the antibodies? Blood plasma
What antibodies does type A blood have? Anti - B antibodies
What antibodies does type B blood have? Anti- A antibodies
What antibodies does type AB blood have? Neither, AB has no antibodies
What antibodies does type O have? Both, anti-A & anti-B antibodies
In a transfusion reaction, what is it called when the antibody-antigen reaction would cause the RBC's to clump together? Agglutinate
What does the RH+ blood contain? RH antigen
What does the RH- blood lack? The specific RH antigen
What RH factor do the majority of Americans have? RH+ blood
What happens if RH- person is exposed to RH+ blood? First exposure: develops antibodies Second exposure: agglutination
What is the approximate size of the heart? Size of a fist
What part of the heart is the Base? Broadest part
What does the hearts Apex refer to? Point of maximum impulse
What is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart called? Pericardium
What is the pericardial cavity? Space that contains serous fluid to prevent fiction as the beats
What is the epicardium? Thin layer of squamous epithelial cells that covers the surface of the heart
What is the myocardium? Cardiac muscle that performs the work of the heart
What is the endocardium? Thin layer of squamous epilthelial cells that lines the chambers of the heart, covers the valves, & continues into the vessels (inner layer of the heart & is smooth)
Why is the endocardium so important? Because it is smooth, it helps prevent blood clot formation
What do the superior & inferior vena cavae supply blood to? Right atrium
Why does the Left ventricle have the thickest (strongest) walls? It must generate enough to force to push blood throughout the body
What are each of the heart's four valves formed by? Two or three flaps of tissue called cusps or leaflets
Why do the valves open & close in the heart? In response to pressure changes within the heart
What are the (2) atrioventricular (AV) valves called? Tricuspid & Mitral
What do the AV valves do? Regulate flow between atria & ventricles
What are the semilunar valves (pulmonary & aortic) so important? They prevent the back flow into the ventricles from the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Where is the pulmonary valve located? Between the right ventricle & the pulmonary artery
Where is the aortic valve located? Between the left ventricle and aorta
Where is the tricuspid valve located? Between the right atrium and the right ventricle
Where is the Mitral valve located? Between the left atrium and the left ventricle
What happens when a valve is incompetent? It creates back flow into the chamber where it come from
When the blood flow comes into the heart from the body, is it oxygenated or de-oxygenated? De-oxygenated
When the blood flow leaves the heart to go back to the body, is it oxygenated or de-oxygenated? Oxygenated
What does the right coronary artery do? Supplies blood to the right atrium, most of the right ventricle, and parts of the left atrium and ventricle
When do the coronary arteries receive their blood supply? When they are relaxed
What is a myocardial infarction (MI)? Blood flow is completely blocked by a blood clot or fatty deposit, resulting in the death of myocardial cells in the armed fed by the artery. Once the cells die, they produce an area of necrosis
What is the order of cardiac conduction? 1. Sinotrial (SA) node 2. Fibers conducts impulse to left atrium, both atria begin to contract 3. Atrioventricular (AV) node 4. Bundle of HIS 5. R & L Bundle Branches 6. Purkinje Fibers
What is Automaticity? The heart's ability to initiate its own electrical impulse
What is SA node and what is the firing rate? Heart's pacemaker; 60-80 BPM (if a SA node fails, another area of the electrical system will initiate a heartbeat) This is "normal flow"
What is AV node and what is the firing rate? Impulse from SA node slows here to give atria time to contract completely & the ventricle to fill with blood; 40-60 BPM
What is the Cardiac Cycle? The series of events from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next
What is the formula for Cardiac Output? Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume (CO=HRxSV)
Where in the brain does the Cardiac Center reside? Medulla
Typically, what blood volume percentage is the ejection fraction? 60%-80%
What are the types of blood vessels? Arteries, Veins, & Capillaries
What do the arteries do? Carries blood away from the heart
What do the veins do? Return blood to the heart
What do the capillaries do? Connect the smallest arteries (arterioles) to the smallest veins (venules)
What are the blood vessel layers? Tunica intima, Tunica media, & Tunica externa
Define Tunica intima Innermost layer; smooth surface helps prevent blood clots; produces chemicals that cause the blood vessels to dilate or constrict; lines all of the blood vessels
Define Tunica media Middle layer; composed of smooth muscle & elastic tissue, it allows the blood vessel to change diameter
Define Tunica externa Outer layer; made of strong, flexible, fibrous tissue; supports and protest the blood vessel
What do the conducting arteries (elastic arteries) do? Closest to the heart; greatest ability to expand & recoil; they can manage a surge of blood with systole & help propel blood with diastole
What do the distributing arteries (muscular arteries) do? Deliver blood to specific organs
What do the arterioles (resistance vessels) do? Smallest arteries; dilate or constrict to maintain BP
What is the correct order in the venous system? Venules (smallest veins), medium sized veins, large veins
Define capillaries Are the exchange vessels (where nutrients, wastes, and hormones are transferred between the blood & tissues); Have extremely thin walls (only have an endothelium & basement membrane)
What are the networks of capillaries organized into called? Capillary beds
Give an example of a capillary organization During exercise, when skeletal muscles require more O2, precapillary sphincters open, blood fills the capillary network, and the exchange of O2, nutrients, and waste occurs with the tissue fluid
How does filtration occur? The high pressure in the capillary pushes plasma & dissolved nutrients (such as glucose & amino acids) through the capillary wall & into the surrounding fluid
Where does filtration occur? Close to the arterial side of the capillary bed
What is the function of Pulmonary circulation? To bring deoxygenated blood to the alveoli for gas exchange
How does the blood flow in pulmonary circulation go? Right ventricle to pulmonary arteries to lobar arteries to capillary bed to lobar veins to pulmonary vein to left atrium
Ascending aorta (be able to label) Right & left coronary arteries branch off to supply the myocardium
Abdominal aorta (be able to label) Branches into the right & left common iliac arteries, which supply blood to the lower pelvis and legs
Aortic Arch (be able to label) Branches into three major arteries Brachiocephalic artery, Common carotid artery, Left subclavian artery
What are the principle arteries & what do they supply? Superior & inferior mesenteric arteries (supply blood to the small & large intestines Abdominal aorta & its branches supply blood to the abdomen, lower extremities & liver
What arteries provide most of the brains blood supply? Common carotid arteries
Where does the Superior vena cava receive blood from? Above the heart (head, shoulders, arms)
Where does the Inferior vena cava receive blood from? Below the level of the heart
What does pressure gradient require? Certain balance (if the pressure gradient between the arterial & venous ends of the capillary network is too low, filtration won't occur. If it's too high, the thin-walled capillaries will rupture
Where is pressure the highest? In the aorta
Where is pressure the lowest? In the vena cava
What is BP determined by? Cardiac output, blood volume & resistance
What does Peripheral resistance result in? Resistance to flow results from friction of blood against walls of vessels
What does the amount of friction depend on? Blood viscosity & vessel diameter (adjusting diameter of the vessels is the body's chief way of controlling peripheral resistance)
Define blood velocity The diameter of a vessel affect how fast blood flows (the greater the diameter of the vessel, the faster the blood flows.
Why does blood flow the slowest in capillaries? Due to the large cross-sectional area & narrow diameter
How does neural regulation of BP work? Medulla sends impulses via autonomic nervous system to alter blood vessel diameter
Define Neutrophils Most abundant of WBC
Define Basophils Secrete heparin, which prevents clotting
Define Monocytes Phagocytic cell that lives is tissues
Define Megakaryocyte Produces fragments that form platelets
The extrinsic pathway is triggered when The damages blood vessels and surrounding tissues release clotting factors
What collects blood from capillaries? Venules
What connects the two sides of the vascular system? Capillaries
Distributing arteries are also called Muscular arteries
Another name for arterioles based on their ability to affect BP Resistance vessels
What provides most of the brains blood supply? Right and left common cortoid arteries
Stimulation of the vagus nerve will have what affect on the heart Decreased heart rate
The hearts skeleton Electrically insulates the ventricles from the atria
Skeleton of the heart is Fibrous connective tissue that encircles the valve
Be able to label the cortoid artery Left side of neck that leads to head
Be able to label left subclavian artery Left side under cortoid artery
What are the steps in hemostasis? Vascular spasm, formation of a platelet plug, formation of a blood clot
Created by: tandkhopkins