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Chapter 12

Endocrine system

What is the Endocrine System? Ductless glands; secrete hormones directly to blood stream; respond slowly; exerts long-lasting effect; adapts slow to continual stimulation
What is a characteristic of Exocrine gland? Have ducts that carry secretions to the body's surface
A steroid hormone? Pass through cell's membrane; binding to receptors in nucleus
A nonsteroid hormone? Can't pass through cell wall; bind to receptors on cell surface
What is a second messenger system? A cascade of processes that influences a cell's response to hormone
The pituatary gland Influences more than any other endocrine gland
Characteristics of anterior pituatary gland? Larger than posterior pituatary gland; glandular tissue; secretes hormones under hypothalamus direction; release or suppress hormones from hypothalamus
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Also called thyrotropin; stimulates The thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
Prolactin Stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries
Lutenizing hormone (LH) Stimulate ovulation in female
Growth hormone (GH) Act on the entire body to promote protein synthesis lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and bone and skeletal muscle growth
Posterior pituitary gland Stores antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin hormone synthesized by the hypothalamus
Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth and triggers the release of milk from the breast during lactation
ADH or vasopressin Acts on the kidney to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
Negative feedback is a process by which Stimulation of another endocrine gland by the pituitary to secrete it's hormone then fed back to the pituitary to stop release of tropic hormone
Pineal gland Produces melatonin; might regulate the timing of puberty
Thymus Secretes thymosin and thymopoietin that have a role and development of the immune system; member of both the endocrine system and the immune system
Thyroid gland Secretes T3 T4 and calcitonin; exposure to cold stimulates the release of TSH increasing the body's metabolic rate to increase heat production
What two main thyroid hormone secreted by thyroid follicles? T3 and T4 are secreted by the cells lining the sacs
Parafollicular cells secrete Calcitonin in response to increasing blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hormones influence on Bones inhibit new bone formation and stimulate the breakdown of old bone; kidneys reabsorp calcium and activate vitamin D; intestines vitamin D is important for intestinal absorption of calcium
Parathyroid glands release PTH in response to Low blood calcium levels
What is tetany Severe muscle spasm that occur from hypocalcemia from accidental parathyroid gland removal
The two distinct glands of the adrenal glands The inner portion adrenal medulla; The outer portion adrenal cortex
The adrenal medula Contains modified neurons and function as part of the sympathetic nervous system that secrete catecholamines specifically epinephrine and norepinephrine
The adrenal cortex Is glandular tissue that secretes corticosteroids consisting of three layers
The three layers of the adrenal cortex are Zona glomerulosa outer most layer Zona fasciculata middle layed Zona reticularis innermost layer
Zona fasciculata Secretes glucocorticoids most active during stress
Mineralocorticoids (Aldesterone) Act on kidneys to promote Na+ retention and K+ excretion also cause water retention
Glucocorticoids ( cortisol) Aid in damaged tissue repair;have anti-inflammatory effect; aid in maintaining normal blood pressure; and suppress the immune system if secreted over a long time
Sex steroids Testosterone and estrogen
What is the pancreas Sit behind stomach contain both endocrine and exocrine tissue; acts mainly as exocrine gland; secrete digestive enzymes; islets contain different types cells alpha,beta, or delta
Alpha cells Secrete glucagon between meal when blood glucose levels decline
Beta cells Secrete insulin stimulating self to take up more glucose
Glucagon Stimulates liver cells to convert glycogen into glucose when blood sugar decreases
Catecholamines Booth glucose levels by breaking down glycogen
Glucocorticoids Convert fat and protein to glucose
Type 2 diabetes Loss of insulin receptors on target cells leading to insulin resistance
Type 1 diabetes Insulin deficiency resulting from destruction of beta cells
Created by: Bravnunez



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