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Chapter 8


joints are also called: articulations
functions of joints: hold skeleton together & gives skeleton mobility
2 classification of joints: structural & functional
the structural classification of joints are based on: joint cavity & material joint is made up of
functional classification of joints are based on___ movement
3 types of functional classification of joints: synarthroses, amphiarthroses, diarthroses
what are synarthroses? no movement
what are amphiarthroses? some movement
___ are freely movable joints diarthroses
the less movable the joint, the more ___ it is stable
what are the 3 structural classification of joints? fibrous joints, synovial joints, & cartilaginous joints
fibrous joints are joined by what type of tissue? dense fibrous connective tissue
fibrous joints has: no joint cavity & are immovable
what are the 3 types of fibrous joints? sutures, syndesmoses & gomphoses
___ are immovable joints for protection of the brain sutures
sutures are made up of ___ tissue fibers short connective
in middle age, sutures ossify and fuse and are called: syntoses (bony junctions)
sutures only occur in __ the brain
___ allows for growth during youth sutures
with syndesmoses, movement depends on: length of connecting fibers
which fibrous joints are bones connected by ligaments? syndesmoses
peg-in-socket joints belong to which fibrous joints? gomphoses
cartilaginous joints: has joint cavity & are highly movable
2 types of cartilaginous joints are: synchrondoses & symphyses
synchondroses are united by ___ cartilage hyaline
all synchondroses are___ synarthrotic
after the plate closes, synchondroses become ___ syntoses
symphyses are united by what cartilage? fibrocartilage
symphyses act as: shock absorbers
synovial joints are all: diarthrotic
synovial joints includes: all limbs
most joints of the body are: synovial joints
bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity are called: synovial joints
6 characteristics of synovial joints: joint cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid, nerves/blood vessels, reinforcing ligaments & articular cartilage
what is the purpose of articular cartilage in synovial joints? prevents crushing of bone ends
the articular cartilage in synovial joints is made up which cartilage? hyaline
the articular capsule in synovial joints consists of what 2 layers? external fibrous layer & inner synovial membrane
the inner synovial membrane makes: synovial fluid
___ lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage synovial fluid
synovial fluid has phagocytic cells to: remove debris
___ detect pain, stretch, and monitor joint position nerve fibers
___ supply filtrate for synovial fluid capillary beds
fatty pads & articular discs(menisci) are features of: synovial joints
fatty pads are used for: cushioning between fibrous layer & synovial membrane
menisci stablizes joint & reduces: wear & tear
bursae & tendon sheath are associated with what type of joint? synovial joints
bursae ___ where ligaments, muscles, skin, bones or tendons rub together reduce friction
origin: attachment to immovable bone
insertion: attachment to movable bone
___ causes insertion to move toward origin muscle contraction
nonaxial slipping movements only
uniaxial movement in 1 plane
biaxial movement in 2 planes
multiaxial movement in or around all 3 planes
abduction is movement___ away from midline
adduction is movement__ toward midline
2 examples of a gliding movement is: intercarpal and intertarsal joints
medial rotation is: towards midline
lateral rotation is: away from midline
2 examples of rotation is: rotation of humerus and femur
the largest & most complex joint of the body is: the knee
what is the most freely movement joint in the body? ball-and-socket joint
dorisflexion flexing toes
plantar flexion pointing toes
inversion sole of foot turned inwards
eversion sole of foot turned outwards
supination palms facing upwards
pronation palms facing downwards
protraction being drawn forward
refraction being drawn backwards
opposition only occurs at the: thumbs
movement to opposite side of appendage is called opposition
2 example of the ball-and-socket joint are: the hip and shoulder joints
2 examples of the hinge joint includes the __ and __ elbow and knee joints
diarthroses is a type of __ joint synovial
synarthrosis is a type of __ joint fibrous
amphiarthroses is a type of __ joint cartilaginous
Created by: Mariahj25