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Module 8

The Endocrine System

Endocrine system Ductless glands; secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream (to relay messages)
Endocrine system Responds slowly
Endocrine system Exerts long-lasting effects
Endocrine system Adapts slowly to continual stimulation
Exocrine glands Have ducts that carry secretions to the body's surface
Steroid hormone Pass easily through a cell's membrane; once inside the cell, they bind to receptors in the nucleus
Nonsteroid hormone Can't penetrate the cell wall; they bind to receptors on the cell surface
Second messenger A cascade of processes that influences a cell's response to a hormone
Pituitary gland Influences more body processes than any other endocrine gland
Anterior pituitary Larger than the posterior and consists of glandular tissue
Anterior pituitary It synthesizes and secretes a number of hormones under the direction of the hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary Hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus stimulate the anterior pituitary to secrete its hormones or to supress secretion of its hormones
Anterior pituitary Hormones of the anterior pituitary stimulate other endocrine cells to release their hormones.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
Prolactin Stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females
Andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries of females
Luteinzing hormone (LH) Stimulates ovulation in females
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
Growth hormone (GH) Acts on the entire body to promote protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and bone and skeletal muscle growth
Posterior pituitary Instead of synthesizing hormones, it stores the hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin which are synthesized by hypothalamus
Oxytocin Stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth and triggers the release of milk from the breasts during lactation
ADH or vasopressin
ADH acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
Negative feedback Pituitary stimulates gland to release hormone Hormone is fed back to pituitary, which halts release of tropic hormone
Negative feedback mechanism where one endocrine gland stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete a hormone, which in turn, causes the first endocrine gland to stop production of its hormone.
Pineal gland Produces melatonin, a hormone that rises at night (when sunlight is absent) and falls during the day. May also regulate the timing of puberty.
Thymus The only glad that is a member of the endocrine system and the immune system
Thyroid Exposure to cold stimulates release of this hormone. It increases the body's metabolic rate, which in turn increases heat production.
T3 (Triiodothyronine) T4 (Thyroxine) Calcitonin Thyroid hormones secreted by thyroid gland:
Thyroid follicle Cells lining the sacs secrete the two main thyroid hormones Triiodothyronine and thyroxine
Parafollicular cells Secrete calcitonin in response increasing blood calcium triggersthe deposition of calcium in bone and thus, promotes bone formation
Bones Kidneys Intestines Parathyroid hormone exerts influence on:
Bone Inhibits new bone formation and stimulates the breakdown of old bone
Kidneys Reabsorb calcium; activate vitamin D
Intestines Vitamin D is important for intestinal absorption of calcium
Parathyroid glands Lie on the posterior surface of the thyroid
Parathyroid glands Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to low blood levels of calcium
Tetany from hypocalcemia typically occurs following the accidental removal of the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery.
Zona fasciculata Secretes glucocorticoids; most active during stress.
Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Sex steroids Classes of adrenal cortex hormones
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone
Mineralocortcoids Acts on kidneys to promote Na+ retention and K+ excretion; also causes water retention
Glucocorticoids Cortisol
Glucocorticoids Aid in the repair of damaged tissue Have an anti-inflammatory effect Aid in maintaining normal blood pressure Suppress the immune system if secreted over a long term
Pancreas Sits just behind the stomach
Pancreas Contains both endocrine and exocrine tissue; majority acts as an exocrine gland
Pancreas Secretes digestive enzymes into the small inestine
Pancreas Islets contain several different types of cells...main ones are alpha, beta, and delta
Alpha Cells Secrete the hormone glucagon between meals, when blood glucose levels decline
Beta Cells Secrete the hormone insulin; stimulates cells to take up more glucose
Glucagon Catecholamines Glucocorticoids Hormones that boost blood glucose levels
Glucagon When blood sugar falls, it stimulates lever cells to convert glycogen into glucose
Catecholamines Boost glucose levels by breaking down glycogen
Glucocorticoids Convert fat and protein to glucose
Insulin It triggers the cells to take up more glucose
Insulin It causes the lever to take up glucose and store it as glycogen
Type 2 Diabetes A loss of insulin receptors on target cells leading to insulin resistance
Type 1 Diabetes Deficiency of insulin resulting from the destruction of beta cells of the pancreatic islets
Created by: JoAnna_Crafton