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A & P Chapter 12


What is the Endocrine System? Ductless glands; secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream (to relay messages) Responds slowly, exerts long-lasting effects, adapts slowly to continual stimulation
Describe Steroid Hormone? Passes easily through a cells's membrane; once inside the cell, they bind to receptors in the nucleus
Describe a nonsteroid? Can't penetrate the cell wall; they bind to the receptors on the cell surface
What is the second messenger system? A cascade of processes that influences a cell's response to a hormone
The pituitary gland influences MORE or LESS of the body processes than any other gland? More
Is the anterior pituitary LARGER or SMALLER that the posterior pituitary? Larger
What type of tissue does the pituitary gland cosnsist of? Glandular
What does the anterior pituitary synthesize & secrete? A number of hormones
Where do hormones synthizie? In the hypothalamus
When the hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus, what does it stimulate to secrete its hormones or supports secretion of its hormones? Anterior Pituitary
What do the hormones of the anterior pituitary stimulate? Other endocrine cells to release their hormones?
What is Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)? Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
What is Prolactin? Stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females
What is Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)? Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
What is Luteinizing hormone (LH)? Stimulates ovulation a in females
What is Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)? Stimulates the production of eggs in the ovaries of females
What is Growth hormone (GH)? Acts on the entire body to promote protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and bone and skeletal muscle growth
What does the posterior pituitary do? Stores the hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin which are synthesized by the hypothalamus
What does oxytocin do? Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and triggers the release of milk from the breast during lactation
What does ADH (antidiuretic hormone) or vasopressin do? Acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
In the control of the pituitary secretion; what does the CNS do? Brain monitors conditions and triggers hormone release as needed
What it negative feedback? Mechanism where one endocrine gland stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete a hormone, which in turn, causes the first endocrine gland to stop production of its hormone
In controls of the pituitary secretion; what does negative feedback do? Pituitary stimulates gland to release hormone; hormone is then fed back to pituitary, which halts release of tropic hormone
What does the Pineal gland do? Produces melatonin, a hormone that rises at night (when sunlight is absent) and falls during the day
What two systems are the Thymus a part of? Endocrine and immune systems
What hormones are released by the Thyroid gland? T3 (Triiodothryonine), T4 (Thyroxine) and Calcitonin
Give an example of how the thyroid works? Exposure to cold stimulates release of thyroid stimulating hormone; thyroid hormone increases the body's metabolic rate, which in increases heat production
What do the parafollicular cells do? Secrete calcitonin in response to increasing blood calcium levels; calcitonin triggers the deposition of calcium in bone and, thus, promotes bone formation
What are the (3) body parts that the Parathyroid glands exert influence on? Bone - inhibits new bone formation & stimulates breakdown of old bone Kidneys - Reabsorbs calcium; activates vitamin D Intestines - Vitamin D is important for intestinal absorption of calcium
When does the parathyroid gland secrete PTH (parathyroid hormone)? When there are low levels of calcium in the blood
What does your body do when you have an excess of Ca in your blood? Thyroid releases calcitonin, Ca then moves from blood to bone, the blood Ca levels then lower brining blood back to Calcium Homeostasis
What does your body do when you have Ca deficiency? Parathyroid releases PTH, Ca then moves from bones, kidneys and intestines to your blood; This causes your Ca blood levels to increase returning your blood back to Calcium homeostasis
What are the three layers of the Adrenal glands? Zona glomerulosa, Zona fasciculata, Zona reticularis
What does the Zona fasciculata do? Secretes glucocorticoids; most active during stress
What are the classes of the adrenal cortex hormones? Mineralocoticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Sex steroids
What does the mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone) do? Acts on kidneys to promote Na retention and K excretion; also causes water retention
What do the glucocorticoids (Cortisol) do? Aid in repair of damaged tissue, have an anti-inflammatory effect, aid in maintaining normal BP, suppresses the immune system if secreted over a long term
Where does the Pancreas sit? Just behind the stomach
What (2) types of tissue does the pancreas contain? Endocrine & exocrine tissue; the majority acts as an exocrine gland
What does the pancreas do? Secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine
How many different cells do the islets contain? Several
What are the main cells in the islets & what are their functions? Alpha cells- secrete the hormone glucagon between meals, when blood glucose levels decline (blood sugar too low = glucagon) Beta cells - secrete the hormone insulin; stimulates cells to take up more glucose (blood sugar to high= insulin)
What hormones boost blood sugar levels? Glucagon, Catecholamines, Glucocorticoids
After eating, blood ___________ levels rise as ___________ flows from the digestive tract into the bloodstream Glucose & Glucose
High glucose levels stimulate the ________ cells of the pancreas to secret insulin Beta
What (2) reactions does insulin trigger? Stimulates the cells to take up more glucose Causes the liver to take up glucose & store it as glycogen
When blood glucose levels drop below a certain point, (skipping a meal), the ___________ cells of the pancreas release glucagon into the blood. Alpha
_____________ stimulates the liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose, which it then releases in the bloodstream (causing blood glucose levels to rise) Glucagon
What causes Type 2 Diabetes? A loss of insulin receptors on target cells leading to insulin resistance
What causes Type 1 Diabetes? Deficiency of insulin resulting from the destruction of beta cells of the pancreatic islets
Created by: tandkhopkins
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