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Module 8 A&P

Endocrine Glands Ductless; secret hormones directly into the bloodstream
Endocrine Glands Respond slowly; exerts long-lasting effects
Endocrine Glands Adapts slowly to continual stimulation
Exocrine Glands Have ducts that secrete out of body
Steroid Hormone pass easily through a cells membrane; bind to receptors in the nucleous
Second messenger system A Cascades of processes that influence a cells response to a hormone
Pituitary Gland influences more body processes than any other endocrine gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland is larger than the posterior and consist of glandular tissue
Anterior Pituitary Gland Synthesizes and secretes hormones under the direction of hypothalamus
hormones of the anterior pituitary stimulates other endocrine cells to release their hormones
Thyroid-stimulating hormone; or thyrotropin Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
prolactin stimulates milk production in the mammary glands in females
Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secret corticosteroids
Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the production of eggs and ovaries of females
Luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation in females
Growth Hormone; or somatotropin acts of entire body to promote protein synthesis,lipid, and carb metabolism, and bone and skeletal muscle growth
Posterior pituitary gland Stores the hormones antidurectic hormone and oxytocin which are synthesized by hypothalamus
oxytocin stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and triggers the release of milk from the breast during lactation
ADH (or Vasopressin) acts on the kidneys to reduce urine volume and prevent dehydration
Negative Feedback
Pineal gland produces melantonin, hormone that controls sleep/wake cycle
thymus is a member of the endocrine and immune systems
thyroid hormone secreted by T3, T4, and calcitonin
thyroid hormone Exposure to cold stimulates the release of thyroid stimulating hormone, which increasing metabolic rate and heat production
Parafollicular cells Secrete calcitonin in response to increasing blood calcium levels
Parathyroid hormone exerts influences on bone, kidneys, and intestines
Parathyroid hormone- Bone Inhibits new bone formation and stimulates the breakdown of old bone
Parathyroid hormone- Kidney Reabsorb calcium, Activate vitamin D
Parathyroid hormone- intestines Vitamin D is important for intestinal absorption of calcium
Zona Fasciculata Secretes glucocorticoids; most active during stress
Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone) Acts on kidneys to promote Na retention and K excretion; also cause water retention
Glucocorticoids ( Cortisol) -aid in repair of damage tissue,- have anti-inflammatory effect,- aid in maintaining blood pressure,- suppress the immune system secret over long term
Sex steriods: Sex Steriods
Pancreas Sits behind the stomach, contains both endocrine and exocrine ; mostly exocrine, secrets digestive enzymes into small intestines
pancreas Islets contain several different types of cells.... main ones are alpha,beta, and delta
Alpha cells secretes the hormone glucogon between meals, when blood glucose levels decline
Beta cells Secrete the hormone insulin, stimulates cells to take up more glucose
Glucagon stimulates liver cells to convert glycogen into glucose when blood sugar falls
Catecholamines Boost glucose levels by breaking down glycogen
Glucocorticoids convert fat and protein to glucose
insulin triggers two reactions stimulates cells to take up more glucose and and liver takes glucose and stores as glycogen
Type 2 diabetes a loss of insulin receptors on target cells leading to insulin resistance
Type 1 diabetes deficiency of insulin resulting from destruction of beta cells of the pancreatic islets
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne



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