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A&P Chapter 11

Sense Organs (Q&A)

What is an example of stimulus? Cold receptors respond only to cold; light receptors respond only to light
What is location of stimulus? Responds to stimuli in a certain area; Sensitive areas contain many receptors
Describe the intensity of stimulus? The stronger the stimulus, the more nerve fibers fire; this allows the brain to interpret the intensity of a sensation. When the stimulus is continuous, the firing frequency of the nerve slows, causing sensation to diminish (adaptation)
What are the classifications of receptors? Chemoreceptors, Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Nociceptors, Photoreceptors, & Proprioceptors
Define Chemoreceptors React to chemicals, including odors & tastes
Define Mechanoreceptors Respond to change factors such as pressure, stretch, & vibration that change the position of a receptor
Define Thermoreceptors Activated by a change in temperature
Define Nociceptors Respond to tissue damage from trauma as well as from heat, chemicals, pressure, or a lack of oxygen
Define Photoreceptors Respond to light; found only in the eyes
Define Proprioceptors Provide information about body movement, muscle stretch, and the general orientation of the body
What is the 6th step in the pain pathway? Impulse bypasses the thalamus and travels to the hypothalamus and limb is system (these areas trigger emotional and behavioral responses to pain (ex: fear & nausea)
What is referred pain? Pain originating in a deep organ, may be sensed as if it is originating from another area on the body's surface
What is taste? Taste results when chemicals come in contact with taste buds, most of which are located in protrusions called papillae
What does gustatory refere to? Taste
What do the taste buds do and what are the three cranial nerves that are involved? Taste buds send impulses to the brain using the facial nerve (#7), glossopharyngeal nerve (#9) & vagus nerve (#10)
What is smell? Incoming odor molecules bind to cilia projecting from the ends of olfactory receptor cells
How does hearing occur? The ripples in the perilymph travel to the organ of Corti: hairs of the organ of Corti are stimulated & send nerve impulses along the cochlear nerve to the brain where is is interpreted as sound
What is responsible for balance? The vestibule & semicircular canals
What does conjunctiva consist of? Transparent mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of they eyelid & cover the anterior surface of the eyeball; secretes a thin mucous film to keep the eyeball moist
What cranial nerves are associated with eye movement? Oculomotor (#3), Trochlear (#4), and Abducen (#6)
What are the tissue layers of the eye? Sclera, Cornea, Iris, Ciliary body, Choroid, Retina, and Optic nerve
What is the Sclera? Outermost layer
What is the Cornea? Transparent extension of the sclera in the anterior part of the eye; sits over the iris and admits light
What is the Iris? Ring of colored muscle that adjust the diameter of the pupil to control the amount of light entering the eye
What is the Ciliary Body? Forms a collar around the lens; secretes a fluid called aqueous humor
What is the Choroid? Highly vascular layer of tissue that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina and sclera
What is the Retina? Thin layer of light-sensitive cells
What is the Optic Nerve? Transmits signals to the brain
What are the eye chambers and fluids? Anterior cavity, Posterior cavity, Lens, Vitreous humor, Ciliary body, Canal of Schlemm
Where does the Anterior cavity lie? Between the lens and cornea
Where dos the Posterior cavity lie? Behind the lens; large cavity filled with vitreous humor
What is the Lens? Transparent disc just behind the pupil; changes shape for near & far sighted
What is the Vitreous humor? A jelly like substance that fills the posterior cavity
What does the Ciliary body do? Secretes aqueous humor
What does the Canal of Schlemm do? Drains aqueous humor from the anterior cavity; if becomes obstructed, pressure in anterior cavity would rise
What is refraction? Bending of light rays; light rays that enter the eye have to be bent so they focuse precisely on the retina
What is accommodation of the lens? Curvature of the lens that changes to allow the eye to focus on a near object
Created by: tandkhopkins