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A&P Chpt 10

Nervous System (Q&A)

What does the Central Nervous System consist of? Brain and Spinal Cord
What the Peripheral Nervous System consist of? Everything outside the brain and spinal cord
What Is the first essential role of the Nervous System? Sensing - Detect changes both inside and outside the body
What is the second essential role of the Nervous System? Integrating - Processthe information received, relate it to past experience, and determine what response is appropriate
What is the third essential role of the Nervous System? Responding - Issues commands to muscles and glands to initiate changes based on its information
What is the Somatic sensory? Carries signals from skin, bones, joints, and muscles
What are the neuroglia? Supportive cells of the nervous system
What do Astrocystes do? Form a blood-brain barrier
How do the Astrocystes work? Wrap around capillaries and protect brain from foreign substances
What is a neuron? Excitable, impulse-controlling cells that perform the work of he nervous system
What does the Sensory (afferent) neurons do? Detect stimuli and transmit info to CNS (ex: touch a flame-heat)
What does the Motor (efferent) neurons do? Relay messages from the brain to the muscle or gland cells (ex: tells hand to withdraw from heat)
What is the Multipolar neuron? Have one axon and multiple dendrites. This is the most common type of neuron and includes most neurosns of the brain and spinal cord
What is the Cell Body (Soma)? The control center and contains the nucleus
What are the Dendrites? Receive signals from other neurons and conduct the information to the cell body
What is the Axon? Carries nerve signal away from the body
What is the Myelin sheath? Insulates the axon
What are the Nodes of Ranvier? Gaps in the myelin sheath that occur at evenly spaced intervals
What is the Synaptic knob? End of the axon branches; inside are the vesicles containing neurotransmitter
What is the outer later of the myelin sheath called? Neurilemma; is essential for an injured her to regenerate
Explain how the impulse conduction works in myelinated fibers (pt 1) Blocks the free movement of ions across the cell membrane; the only plane ion exchange can occur is at the nodes of Ranvier
Explain how the impulse conduction works in myelinated fibers (pt 2) Electrical changes occur at the nodes of Ranvier, creating an action potential. The current flows under the myelin sheath to the next node, where it triggers another action potential.
Explain how the impulse conduction works in myelinated fibers (pt 3) Because the action potential only occur at the nodes, the impulse seems to "leap" from node to node
What actions does the Cervical area in the spinal cord do? Innervate (stimulate) the chest, head neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and diaphragm
What are the structures of the spinal cord? Epidural space, Central canal, White matter, & Grey matter
Where is the epidural space? Lies between the outer cover of the spinal cord and the vertebrae
What does the central canal do? Carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord
Why does white matter appear white? It has an abundance of myelin
Why does gray matter appear gray? It lacks myelin; it mostly contains neuron cell bodies
What are the attachments of the spinal nerve? Dorsal nerve, spinal nerve, ventral nerve root, pia mater, subarachnoid space, dura mater
What does the dorsal nerve do? Carries the sensory information into the spinal cord
What is the spinal nerve? A single nerve that contains both motor and sensory fibers
What does the ventral nerve root do? Carries motor information out of the spinal cord
What is the pia mater? Innermost layer
Where is the subarachnoid space & what is it filled with? Lies between the arachnoid mater. And pia mater; filled with cerebrospinal fluid
What is the dura mater? Tough outer layer
What are the bundles of axons called and what to they serve? Called tracts and serve as the routes of communication to and from the brain
What does the ascending track (sensory) do? Takes information to the brain
What does the descending track (motor) do? Takes information to the muscle
Where are the axons located? Within the white matter of he spinal cord
What is decussation? Spinal cord tracts that cross from one side of the body to the other in the brain stem
What is an example of decussation? When someone who suffers a stroke, affecting motor sensors in the left side of the brain will have weakness or paralysis on the right side of the body and vice versa
How many spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord? 31
What does the cervical plexus contain and what does it do? Contains phrenic nerve, which stimulates the diaphragm for breathing
What is the sacral plexus and what does it cause? Contains the sciatic nerve (largest nerve in body) runs down back of thigh. Irritation causes severe pain down the back of the leg
When does the spinal cord stop growing and how far does it extend By adulthood; extends as far as L1. This is why lumbar punctures occur between L3 & L4, there is not danger of nicking the spinal cord with the needle
What happens to the Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)? CSF is reabsorbed into the venous bloodstream by projections of the arachnoid mater into the dural sinuses (also called arachnoid villi)
What is another name for arachnoid villi? Dural sinuses
What are the parts of the brain stem? Midbrain, Pons, Medulla oblongata
What does the medulla oblongata contain? Contains cardiac center, vasomotor center, and two respiratory centers
What does the Cerebellum monitor? Monitors body movements and seeds messages for balance, coordination, and posture
What does the cerebellum store? Stores information necessary for muscle groups to work together to perform smooth, efficient, and coordinated movements.
What does the cerebellum evaluate? Evaluates sensory input, such as touch, spatial perception and sound
What does the diencephalon contain? Thalamus & Hypothalamus
What does the hypothalamus do? Controls the autonomic nervous system; contains centers for hunger, thirst & temp regulation; controls the pituitary gland; & is involved in multiple emotional responses (fear, anger, pleasure, & aggression)
What does the frontal lobe do? Governs voluntary movements, memory, emotion, social judgement, decision making, reasoning and aggression
What is another term for limbic system and what does it contain? "Emotional Brain", contains the hippocampus
What does the hippocampus do? Converts short-term memory into long-term memory; If injury occurs to this area, the person would lose the ability to form new memories
What is the autonomic nervous system? Innervates glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle (these work by themselves) Consists of 2 nerve fibers that synapse @ a ganglion before reaching target
What does the autonomic nervous system secrete? Secretes both acetylcholine & norepinephrine as neurotransmitters; may excite or inhibit target cells
Is the autonomic nervous system voluntary or involuntary? Involuntary
What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
What does the sympathetic division do? Prepares the body for activity; increases alertness, heart rate; stimulates sweat glands; inhibits intestinal motility (Flight or Fight)
What does the parasympathetic division do? Calms the body functions; has a calming effect; decreases the heart rate, constricts bronchial tubes; stimulates intestinal motility
Where does the sympathetic division arise from? Neurons arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Sympathetic ganglia exist in chains along both sides of the spinal cord
Where does the parasympathetic division arise from? Neurons arise from the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord. Parasympathetic ganglia reside in or near target organs
At what age does the nervous system process start to develope and when is it complete? Myelination of nerves begins during the fourteenth wee of fetal development and is not complete until late adolescence
Created by: tandkhopkins



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