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Module 7 A&P

Central Nervous System consist of Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System consist of Everything outside of the brain and spinal cord
Roles of the nervous system Sensing, Integrating, Responding
Sensing Detect changes both inside and outside the body
Integrating Process the information received, relate it to past experience, and determine what response is appropriate
Responding Issues commands to muscles and glands to initiate changes based on its information
Somatic Sensory Carries signals from skin, bones, joints, and muscles
Neuroglia Supportive cells of the nervous system
Astrocytes Form blood-brain barrier
Blood- brain barrier protects the brain from foreign substances, formed as astrocytes wrap around capillaries
Sensory (afferent) Neurons Detect stimuli and transmit info to CNS
Motor (efferent) Neurons Relay messages from the brain to the muscle or gland cells
Multipolar Neurons One axon and multiple dendrites, most common type of neuron of the brain and spinal cord
Cell body (soma) the control center and contains the nucleus
Dendrites Receive signals from other neurons and conduct the information to the cell body
Axon Carries nerve signals away from the body
Myelin sheath Insulates the axon
Nodes of Ranvier Gaps in the myelin sheath that occur at the evenly spaced intervals
Synaptic Knob End of the axon branches, inside are vesicles containing neurotransmitters
Neurilemma Outer layer of sheath only in PNS, essential for an injured nerve to regenerate
Myelin blocks the... Free movement of ions across the cell membrane.
Electrical changes occur.. At the Node of Ranvier
Cervical Innervates the chest, head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands, and diaphragm
White Matter appears white because of its abundance of myelin fibers
Gray Matter Appears gray because of its lack of myelin, it contains mostly neuron cell bodies
Central Canal Carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord
Epidural Space Lies between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae
Dorsal Nerve Root Carry sensory information into the spinal cord
Spinal Nerve A single nerve that contains both motor and sensory fibers
Ventral Nerve Root Carry motor information out of the spinal cord
Pia mater Innermost layer
Subarachnoid Space Lies between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, filled with cerebrospinal fluid
Dura Mater Tough outer layer
Tracts serve as the routs of communication to and from the brain
Ascending Tracts (Sensory) takes information to the brain
Descending Tracts (Motor) takes information to muscles
Spinal Cord Tracts... Cross from one side of the body to the other in the brainstem, this is why someone suffers from a stroke
Pairs of Spinal Nerves 31 pairs
Cervical Plexus Contains phrenic nerve, which stimulates the diaphragm for breathing
Sacral Plexus Contains the sciatic Nerve runs down the back of the thigh, irritation of this nerve cause severe pain down the back of this leg
Cerebrospinal Fluid is reabsorbed into the venous bloodstream by.... Projections of the arachnoid mater into the Dural sinuses, called arachnoid villi
Medulla Oblongata Contains cardiac center, vasomotor center, and two respiratory centers
Cerebellum Monitors body movement and send messages for balance, coordination and posture
Cerebellum Stores the information necessary for muscle groups to work together to preform smooth, efficient, and coordinated movements.
Cerebellum Evaluates sensory input, such as, touch, spatial perception, and sound
Thalamus Resides on top of the brainstem, acts as a gateway for nearly every sensory impulse
Hypothalamus Controls the autonomic nervous system; contains centers for hunger, thirst and temperature regulation
Frontal Lobe Governs voluntary movements, memory, emotions, social judgment, decision making, reasoning, and aggression
Limbic System The "Emotional Brain"
Hippocampus Converts short term memory into long term memory
Autonomic nervous system Innervates glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle; Consist of two nerve fibers that synapse at a ganglion before reaching target, secretes both acetylcholine and norepinephrine as neurotransmitters, May excite or inhibit target cells , Involuntary
Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares the body for activity, increases alertness, heart rate, sweat, inhibits intestinal motility ( Fight or Flight)
Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms body functions, has calming effect, decrease heart rate, constricts bronchial tubes, stimulates intestinal motility
sympathetic division Neurons Arise from thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord
Sympathetic ganglia exist in chains along both sides of the spinal cord
Parasympathetic division Neurons arise from the cranial and sacral regions of the spinal cord
Parasympathetic ganglia Reside in or near target organs
Myelination of nerves begins during the.... 14th week and isn't completed until late adolescence
Type of stimulus Cold receptors respond only to cold, light receptors only respond to light
Location of stimulus Responds to stimuli in a certain area, sensitive areas contain many receptors
Intensity of stimulus The stronger the stimulus, the more nerve fibers fire
Adaptation When stimulus is continuous, the firing frequency of the nerve slows, causing the sensation to diminish
Chemoreceptors React to chemicals, including odor and taste
Mechanoreceptors Respond to factors such as pressure, stretch, and vibration that change the position of receptor
Thermoreceptors Activated by a change in temperature
Nociceptors Respond to tissue damage from trauma as well as heat, chemicals, pressure, or a lack of oxygen
Photoreceptors Respond to light, only found in eyes
Proprioceptors Provide information about body movement, muscle stretch, and the general orientation of the body
In Pain, nociceptors consist of free nerve endings that carry impulses to the brain
Fast Abundant in the skin and mucous membrane; produce a sharp, localized, stabbing type pain at the time of injury
Slow Congregated on deep body organs and structures; produced a dull, aching pain
Impulses bypass the thalamus and travels to the hypothalamus and limbic system.... these area trigger emotional and behavioral responses to pain
Referred pain pain originating in a deep organ may be sensed as if it is originating from another area on the body surface
Papillae taste results when chemicals come in contact with taste buds, most of which are located in protrusions
taste cranial nerves facial nerve, glosspharyngeal nerve, and vagus nerve
Smell Incoming odor molecules bind to cilia projecting from the ends of olfactory receptor cells
Tympanic membrane Separates the outer from the middle ear, vibrates freely in response to sound waves;transmits sound waves from outer to middle ear
Cochlea Contains the structures for hearing
The ripples in the peri lymph travel to the organ of corti, hairs of the organ of corti are stimulated and send impulses along the cochlear to brain..... Where sound is perceived
Vestibule and semicircular canals.... Play a key role in balance
Conjunctiva Consist of transparent muscous membrane that lines inner eyelid and covers anterior surface of eyeball, secretes a thin mucous film to keep eye moist
Cranial nerves associated with eye movement Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens
Sclera Outermost layer
Cornea Transparent extension of the sclera in the anterior part of the eye; sits over the iris and admits light
Iris Ring of colored muscle that adjust the diameter of the pupil to control the amount of light entering the eye
Ciliary body Forms a collar around the lens, secretes fluid called aqueous humor
Chorid Highly vascular layer of tissue that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina and sclera
Retina Thin layer of light sensitive cells
Optic nerve Transmits signals to the brain
Fovea centralis Where most cones are concentrated, making this the area that produces the sharpest vision
Anterior cavity Lies between the lens and cornea
Posterior cavity Lies posterior to the lens; large cavity filled with vitreous humor
Lens Transparent disk just behind the pupil
Vitreous Humor A jelly like substance that fills the posterior cavity of the eye
Ciliary Body Secrets aqueous humor
Canal of schlemn Drains aqueous humor from the anterior cavity; if becomes obstructed, pressure in the anterior cavity would rise
Refraction Light rays entering the eye must be bent so they focus precisely on the retina, bending of light rays
Accommodation The curvature of the lens changes to allow the eye to focus on a near object
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne



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