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Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy final

TermDefinition
Central Nervous System Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, thalamus, etc.
Peripheral Nervous System Spinal nerves, cranial nerves, sensors
autonomic (visceral) Involuntary body functions of visceral muscles (cardiac, glandular secretions, digestive function)
somatic Voluntary body functions
Autonomic NS Innervations Glands, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
Somatic NS Motor control is largely dictated by the precentral region of the cerebral cortex with nerve impulses conveyed thru descending motor tracts (efferent) of the brain and spinal cord.
Nerve Tracts The mode of communication from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body
Sensory (Afferent) Info received from the environment and sent to the brain for processing (constant regulation of vital abilities - HR, body temp)
Motor (Efferent) Convey info from the cerebral cortex out to the periphery
3 Types of Nerve Tracts Projection, Association, and Commisural
Projection tract from cortex to brainstem
Association provide communication between regions of same hemisphere
Commisural Communication between right and left hemisphere
Efferent (motor) pathways Pyramidal & Extrapyramidal
Pyramidal Corticobulbar and corticospinal
Corticobulbar from the motor cortex to the brainstem; motor cranial nerves for speech
Corticospinal from the motor cortex, pre-motor cortex and SMA to the spinal nerves in the spinal cord
Extrapyramidal basal ganglia and reticular formation (originate in the cerebral cortex, but moves outside the medulla; provide background tonicity; reflexes
Afferent (sensory) pathways Spinothalmic
Spinothalmic from environment to higher brain centers; pain and thermal regulation
Grey Matter Neuronal bodies
White Matter Mylinated axons
Upper Motor Neurons (UMN) connect the brain to the appropriate level in the spinal cord or brainstem, from which point nerve signals continue to the muscles by means of the lower motor neurons
Lower Motor Neurons (LMN) Final Common Pathway
Gyri mountains of the brain
Sulci valleys of the brain
Fissure deeper groove of the brain
Surface of the cerebral cortex of the brain doubles on itself, surface becomes convoluted -Function of this? Increased surface area for neuron power
Lateral Sulcus "Sylvian Fissure" divides the temporal lobe from the frontal lobe
Central Sulcus "Rolandic Fissure" divides frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
Broadmann's Areas He brain mapped - diff parts of the brain have specific functions
Dura Mater Superficial layer of protection; more inelastic (fibrous/rigid)
Arachnoid Mater middle layer; many of the blood vessles for the brain pass through - where cerebral spinal fluid flows
Pia Mater thin cobering of the brain itself; major arteries/veins that serve the cerebral cortex are here
Falx cerebri separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum into R and L, down to the corpus collosum
Falx cerebelli separates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum into R and L
Tentorium cerebelli Horizontally divides the cerebrum into superior (cerebral) and inferior (cerebellar) regions
Diaphragma sella separates the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and optic chiasma
Cerebrum - Dura Mater Infolds Falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, tentorium cerebelli, and diaphragma sella
Cerebrospinal fluid protection, nutrition, waste removal
Hydocephalus occlusion of the cerebral spinal fluid pathway. literally "water on the brain". Most common obstruction is cerebral aqueduct -btw the 3rd and 4th ventrical) Treatment = meds and shunt.
CSF originates? in the ventricles and is absorbed by the venous system of the brain
Ventricular System CSF and 2 paired lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle, and choroid plexus
3rd Ventricle sits around the thalamus
4th Ventricle flows through cerebral aquaduct
choroid plexus aggregate of tissue that produces cerebro spinal fluid
Venus System Choroid plexus moves the subarachnoid space and bathes the brain in CSF and then gets eliminated via the venus system
Cerebrovascular system complex interconnected vascular system (arteries, veins) blood carries oxygen to the organs including the brain
Vascular system of the brain the brain constitutes 2% of our overall body weight but requires 20% of the oxygen needs of the body due to its high metabolic requirements. Blood carries this O2 thru the brain.
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart; aorta
Veins Carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart; vena cavas
Circle of Willis encircles the optic chiasma and is a series of vessels that provide collateral blood flow to the left and right hemispheres of the brain as well as the anterior posterior aspects.
What is the Circle of Willis? The carotid and vertebral systems are joined by communicating arteries that help ensure equilized distribution of blood and safeguard against vascular accidents
What are the 2 primary arteries involved in the Circle of Willis Anterior? Carotids and vertebrals
Common Carotid arteries of the circle of willis -anterior branch to... the internal and external carotids (only internal CA supply blood)
Internal Carotid Arteries (ICA) branch off to... the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA)
Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) frontal/ parietal lobes, copus callosum, BG (basal ganglia) regions
Middle cerebral artery (MCA) temporal lobe, motor strip, Broca's, Wernicke's, sensory regions
What does the Middle Cerebral Artery do? supply blood to areas critical for speech, language and hearing. It is the largest and courses laterally thru the lateral sulci
Lenticulostrate arteries arteries of the middle cerebral artery that branch off and supply blood to the Basal Ganglia and internal capsule
Watershed area Diffuse symptoms, not as severe, but more widespread speech lang deficits.
The Circle of Willis -Posterior The basilar artery divides to become the left and right posterior cerebral arteries (PCA)
Basilar Artery Left and right vertebral arteries join to form the basilar artery
Posterior cerebral arteries serve the inferior temporal and occipital lobes, primary visual cortex, cerebellum (supply blood to back part of brain)
Posterior communicating arteries (PCOM) connect the PCA to the MCA (2 of them)
Anterior communicating artery (ACOM) connects the ACAs
Venous system blood drains into the cisterns (both superficial and deep). It returns to the general bloodstream via the jugular veins and eventually the superior vena cava
Spinal Vascularization Anterior/posterior spinal arteries supply the spinal cord. Radicular arteries serve the spinal nerves
Cerebrum "bark" outer surface of the brain. Made up of 6 cell layers with 2 basic cell types (pyramidal -pyramid shaped involved in motor funciton. And non-pyramidal cells-star shaped, involved in sensory information or intercommunication btw cells)
Right hemisphere of the cerebrum mostly devoted to creativity
Left hemisphere of the cerebrum mostly devoted to logic abilities.
Corpus collosum bundle of axons which connect the 2 hemispheres; information/communication highway
What is the cerebrum It controls voluntary functions. Considered the seat of consciousness and it is the most highly evolved and organized structure of the body. (includes: gray matter, white matter, and gyri & sulci)
Intra-axial hemorrhages occur within the brain tissue, due to trauma or stoke 3 types: intraventricular, intraparenchymal, intracerebral
Intraventricular bleeding into ventricals
Intraparenchymal bulk of the brain tissue
Intracerebral intraxial hemorrhage (general term)
Extra-axial hemorrhages occurs outside of the brain tissue; can be due to trauma 3 types: epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), subarchnoid hemorrhage (SAH)
Frontal Lobe Largest of the lobes, accounts for 1/3 of the cerebral cortex. Executive functioning, language, motor control of body. Includes: precentral gyrus-motor strip, SMA/Pre-motor area, Pre-frontal cortex, and Broca's area
Homunculus Topographic organization
Parietal Lobe Post-central gyrus is the sensory counterpart to the motor strip - primary site of sensory input; distribution of sensory function by body region is closely related to the motor strip. Supramarginal gyrus-motor planning for speech. Impairments here=autism
Angular gyrus of the Parietal lobe important in comprehension of written language
Temporal Lobe Auditory and receptive language processing; auditory reception, memory acquisition.
Superior Temporal Gyrus (Heschl's gyrus) auditory information is projected. Posterior area = Wernicke's Area
Wernicke's Area auditory comprehension and processing
Arcuate Fasciculus Tract of nerve fibers running from Broca's to Wernicke's area.
Occipital Lobe Posterior limit of the brain. Primary Visual cortex
Insular Cortex Plays a role in consciousness, emotion, homeostasis, cognitive functioning, perception, self awareness, and hand eye coordination
Cerebellum Older than the cerbrum. 2 Hemispheres, highly folded surface. Regulation/coordination of movement, posture and balance. Plays a role in memory for motor function. Ataxia
Subcortical Structures Basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampu, hypothalamus, amygdala. Functionally, compose the limbic system.
Basal Ganglia Composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Movement disorders
Lentiform Globus pallidus and putamen together
Striatum Putamen and caudate nucleus together.
Thalamus Situated deeply in the forebrain. Sensory and motor function. Last relay site for sensory info be4 reaches cerebrum. Reticular activating system - sleep/wake and attention
Hypothalamus Inferior/ventral to the thalamus. Homeostasis, autonomic responses, thirst/hunger, emotion, reproduction, dysautonomia. (Primative emotions)
Hyppocampus In proximity of the temporal lobe. Learning and short-term memory. Recall spacial relationships in world, communicates with the hypothalamus. Retrograde amnesia and anterograde - due to damage in this area
Amygdala Located in the temporal lobe. Involved in memory, emotion, and fear. Autism
Brainstem Consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. Intermediate stage of organization. Originates site of cranial nerves. Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata.
Spinal Cord Begins at foramen magnum and courses inferiorly thru the vertebral column. Has both efferent & afferent components. Relays motor info, relays sensory info, & coordinates reflexes
Synaptic Pruning C1q is secreted by neurons to identify "un-needed" synapses
Theory of autism sensory overload (diminished amnt of C1q)
Alzheimers/Dementia Increased amnts of C1q
Neuroplasticity ability of the brain to regenerate neuronal pathways &/or find alternate neuronal pathways to compensate for damage
Left Hemisphere of brain characterized by language deficits
Right Hemisphere of brain higher level cognitive deficits (thinking, planning, organize, STM, processing) and visual deficits
Communication Disorders Aphasias, cognitive-communicative disorders, apraxia, dysarthria, cognitive-communicative disorders
ALS Happens where UPN and LMN connect (damage to nerve cells and glial cells
MS Demylination of axons (damage to nerves)
PD damage in the basal ganglia (damage to glial cells)
Cerebral hemisphere neuropathologies Encephalitis, brain injury, and dementia
Disruption of supporting systems of the CNS (blood supply, meningeal coverings and ventricular systems) Meningitis, hydocephalus, and stoke
Meningitis #1 cause=ear infections. Inflammation of the meninges (pia and arachnoid) Including the subarachnoid space and CSF. Microorganisms enter the CSF
Hydocephalus Blockage/obstruction usually from the ventricles. Inadequate drainage results in increased intracranial pressure causing brain tissue to shift out of the way
Stroke vascular disease interrupting the blood supply to various CNS tissues
Ischemic Type of stroke common in the MCA (80% of stokes) can be thrombotic or embolic
Ischemia decrease in oxygen and glucose to brain tissue
Thrombotic Stroke gradual buildup of plaque that occludes
Embolic Stroke material that travels in the blood stream until it gets to an artery/capillary that's too narrow
Hemorrhagic stroke (20% of stokes) a burst in the vessel. Results in bleeding on the brain
TIA (transient ischemic attack) mirrors symptoms of a stoke, but resolves - sign you may have a stroke soon
Common locations of a stroke meningeal layers (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid) and Intracerebral/parenchymal (subcortically)
Antecedents of a stroke Hypertension (malignant or chronic) Aneurysm (weakening of an artery wall resulting in ballooning out over time)
Arteriovenus Malformation abnormally formed capillary beds
Encephalitis inflammation of generalized brain tissue causing swelling, usually in the temporal lobes; viral - herpes
Traumatic brain injury brain damage as a result of physical trauma. Can be penetrating (open head injury that pierces thru brain matter) or non-penetrating (closed injury as a result of blunt trauma or rotational acceleration)
Discrete lesions concussion, contusion, hematoma, ischemic brain damage
Diffuse lesions diffuse axonal injury and hypoxic/anoxic. May have more lasting effects
concussion most minor of brain injuries. alteration of consciousness for a short time. visual and vestibular deficits
contusion minor hemorrhage or tearing of blood vessel at the site of impact (coup, contrecoup)
hematoma accumulation of blood (epidural, subdural)
ischemic brain damage ACA or MCA distribution (see in soldiers)
diffuse axonal injury damage to nerve fibers (axons); shearing of white matter
hypoxic/anoxic decreased oxygenation of tissue (hypotension, high intracranial pressures, seizures, cardiopulmonary compromise)
Mechanisms of Traumatic Brain Injury Discrete lesions and diffuse lesions
Dementia disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive abilities that typically strikes in later years. Memory decline and one more: apraxia, agnosia, aphasia, executive function impairment
Cortical dementia atrophy of the cerebral cortex (alzheimers and frontotemporal
Subcortical dementia degeneration of the basal ganglia. often vascular or multi-infarct. Huntington's disease
causes of dementia build up of tau proteins causing cell death; primarily affects the temporal lobes, hippocampus. Genetics
Aphasia Loss of language skills. Expressive-difficulty with speaking or writing. Receptive - difficulty understanding or reading
Dysarthria motor speech deficits
Apraxia motor planning deficits
cognitive-communicative disorders thinking skills deficits (attention, memory, problem solving)
Wernicke's aphasia Receptive aphasia - fluent sounding speech that is meaningless/not on topic. Damage due to the left posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyrus and surrounding areas
Broca's aphasia non-fluent effortful/telegraphic speech. A stoke in the left hemisphere of the frontal region.
Conduction Aphasia arcuate fasciculus. Difficulty repeating, literal substitutions
Global aphasia damage to both Wernicke's and Broca's areas resulting in expressive and receptive deficits
Anomic aphasia mildest of aphasias; difficulty with word retrieval (tip of tongue)
Motor speech lesions Dysarthria (flaccid, spastic, ataxic, mixed) and Apraxia (SMA, insula, frontal/parietal lobes) can be oral (swallowing or non speech movements-can't stick out tongue) or Verbal (speech movements-can't do multisyllabic words)
cognition attention, organization/sequencing, problem-solving, memory and higher level processing
executive functioning attention, self-regulation, self-inhibition, self-awareness, insight into deficits, reasoning
pragmatics social appropriateness - eye contact, verbosity, personal space, turn-taking
Right hemisphere dysfunction impairments in attention and integration. Attention supports all other cognitive functions; significant L neglect
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome resulting from multiple concussed episodes and characterized by an increase in tau protiens and resulting in early onset dementia, decreased emotional regulation, and depression
Locked in syndrome a paralysis of voluntary muscles of the body while consciousness remains relatively unaffected. Caused by a lower brainstem injury
Telencephalon cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, olfactory tracts, verntricles
Diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, optic tract, ventricles
Mesencephalon mid brain
metencephalon pons, cerebellum, ventricle
myelencephalon medulla oblongata, ventricle
Created by: Spaw14