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A&P Chapter 6, 7 & 8

Bone, Skelatal & Joints

TermDefinition
Epiphysis The head of each of the long bone
Articular Cartilage Covers the epiphysis; eases the movement of the bone with in the joint (the layer of hyaline cartilage)
Diaphysis Hollow cylinder made of compat bone, gives the bone strength; central shaft like portion of long bone
Periosteum Dense, fibrous membrane cover the diaphysis, some fibers penetrate the bone, some weave together with fibers of tendons to ensure strong connection between muscle & bone
Medullary Cavity The central hollow cavity in the bone
Greenstick Fracture A fracture that is incomplete, usually occurs in young children
Comminuted Fracture & Cause When's the bone is broken into several pieces; usually occurs in car accidents
Scoliosis Lateral curvature of the spine, most often in the thoracic region
Kyphosis "Hunchback" exaggerated thoracic curvature
Lordosis "Swayback" exaggerated lumbar curvature
Scapula Shoulder blade (lies over ribs 2-7)
Acromion process Extension of the scapula; articulates with the clavicle
Radius One of the two bones in the lower arm located on the same side as the thumb
Proximal head Distinctive disc that rotates on the humerus when the palm is turned forward & back
Humerus Long bone of the upper arm
Radial tuberosity Where the bicep muscle attaches to the bone
Muscular fiber Skelatal muscle cell
Epimysium Surrounds the muscle as a whole & binds all the muscles fibers together
Muscle tone Continuous state of partial contraction
Threshold Minimum voltage needed to cause a muscle fiber to contract
Prime movers Main muscle triggering movement
Synergists Muscles that assist prime movers
Antagonist Muscles balancing movements
Atrophy Lack of muscle use causing the muscle to shrink
Frontalis Raises the eyebrows when glancing upward or when showing surprise
Sternpocleidomastoid Flexes the head (located on side of neck)
Rectus abdominals Flexes the lumbar region of the spinal column to cause bending forward at the waist (extends from the sternum to pubic bone)
Transverse abdominis Compresses the contents of the abdomen
Deltoid Abducts, flexes & rotates the arm, involved in swinging the arm (bowling or walking)
Latissimus Dorsi Addicts the humerus; extends the upper arm backwards (swimming or rowing)
Brachialis Prime mover when flexing the forearm
Biceps brachii Assist the brachial is when flexing the forearm; also flexes the elbow & supinate a the forearm
Triceps brachii Prime mover when extending the forearm (Angel wings)
Brachioradialis Helps the brachialis & the biceps flex the forearm
Lliopsoas Flexes the thigh
Sartorius Longest muscle in the body; Aids in flexion of the hip & knee
Vastus Lateralis & Vastus Medialis 2 of the 4 muscles that act together with the quadriceps femoris
Quadriceps Femoris The most powerful muscle in the body; is the prime mover for knee extension
Gluteus Maximus The bulkiest muscle in the body; produces the backswing of the leg when walking
Gastrocnemius Bulging calf muscle (the more superficial muscle)
Head Prominent expanded end of bone
Trochanter Large process; found only in the femur
Foramen A round opening, usually a passageway for vessels and nerves
Meatus Tube-like opening
Condyle Round knob; usually fits into a fossa on another bone to form a joint
Created by: tandkhopkins