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A&P Chapter 6, 7, 8

Muscle, Bone, Joints

List the multiple roles of bone in the body Shape, Support, Protection, Movement, Electrolyte Balance, Blood Protection, Acid Base Balance
What are flat bones & their functions? Flat bones are thin, flat, often curved bones; they protect organs and some provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles
Compare medulla cavity in children vs. adults In children the medullary cavity is filled with (white blood cells) WBC producing red bone marrow In adults most of the marrow has turned yellow, which is rich in fat
What kind of tissue is bone made of? Connective tissue
What is matrix made of? Collagen fibers & crystalline salts (primarily calcium & phospate). Matrix bone is hard & calcified, making it unique from other connective tissue
Describe the compressional strength? Calcium salts allow bones to resist strong squeezing forces
What is the action of the red mone marrow? Produces red blood cells (RBC)
What is the action of the yellow bone marrow? Saturated with fat & no longer produce blood cells; replaces red bone marrow over time (In some severe cases, chronic blood loss, yellow marrow can change back into red bone marrow)
What is the skeleton in a developing fetus made of? Cartilage & fibrous connective tissue
What is Intramembranous Ossification (Fontanels)? "Soft spots" that allow for safe compression of fetus' head while passing thru birth canal; allows skull to expand as brain grows; completely ossified by age 2
What is endochondral ossification? When cartilage begins to turn into bone after 3 months gestation
What are the nutrients necessary for proper bone growth? Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, C, & D
How long does it take uncomplicated fractures heal? 8-12 weeks
How many bones does most adults have? 206
What bones does the Axial skeleton consist of? Skull, spine, vertebral column, thoracic (rib) (80 bones)
Describe the sinuses and how does sinuses produce sound production? Sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, ethmoid sins, maxillary sinus Four pairs of sinuses filled with air open into the internal nose, they lighten the skull & act as resonators for sound production
What are the five sections of the vertebral column? Cervical (C7), Thoracic (T12), Lumbar (L5), Sacral, Coccyx
Describe characteristics of Vertebral foramen Allows passage for the spinal cord
Describe characteristics of Vertebrae Body Is the weight bearing portion of the vertebra
Describe spinous process Projects posteriorly from the vertebra; (the spinous process is what you feel when you run your fingers down your spine)
Describe transverse processes Extend from each sidt
What is the intervertebral disc designed to support? Weight
What are the "true ribs"? Ribs 1-7 attached to the sternum (Costal cartilage )
How many bones are in the wrist? 8 (carpals)
What is true pelvis & how do females differ from males? True pelvis is wide and shallow in females and deep in males. Females have a larger pelvic outlet and wider pubic arch than males
Which bone is the longest & strongest bone in the body? Femur; it articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form a ball & socket joint (hip)
Describe the patella Also known as the knee cap; a triangularsesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the knee
Describe the fibula Slender bone of the lower leg; helps stabilize the ankle; does not bear any weight; the distal end form the lateral malleolus of the ankle
What are the synovial joints? Pivot joint, hinge joint, gliding joint, ball & socket joint, saddle joint, condyloid joint
What are the movements of the pivot joint? Allows bones to rotate
What are the movements of the hinge joint? Allows only back & forth movement. (Elbow & knee)
What are the movements of the gliding joint? Least mobile of all joints (tarsal bones of the ankle)
What are the movements of the saddle joint? Move back & forth & side to side (limited)
What are the movements of the condyloid joint? Allows flexion, extension, & side to side
Describe the three types of muscles? Cardiac - involuntary, striated, only in the heart Smooth - involuntary, nonstriated, fount in digestive tract, blood vessels, bladder, airways & uterus Skeletal - voluntary, appears markedly by striated, attached to bone and causes movement in the body
Compare direct & indirect attachment Direct attachment, muscle fibers merge with the periosteum of the bone Indirect attachment, the epemysium extends past the muscle as a tendon, the tendon then merges with the periosteum
How does a motor neuron work? It receives a message from the skeletal muscle nerve
What affects the force of concentration? There are a number of things that affect force contraction including size of the muscle, Deere of stretch, & number of muscle fibers contracting
What is incomplete tetanus? It's the condition of rapid contraction with only partial relaxation
How does the body meet the needs of oxygen during exercise? The heart and lungs work harder
What muscles are involved in breathing? External intercostals
What is synovial fluid? A slippery, viscous fluid with the consistency of an egg white; lubricates the joint, nourishes the cartilage, and contains phagocytes to remove debris
What is synovial membran? A thin layer of hyline cartilage that covers the bone surfaces; in combination with synovial fluid, it permits friction -free movements
What attaches muscle to bone? Tendons
What attaches bones to bone? Cartilage
What is supination? Is movement that turns the palm up
What is pronation? Is movement that turns the palm down
What is a ball & socket joint? It has the greates range of motion of any joint. (Shoulder & hip) The shoulder is most likely joint to dislocate; it usually does so inferiorly, as a result of a downward driving force (such as blow from above)
What are mycrofibrils? The thin & thick myofilaments that stack. They a re arranged in a type of lattice work to form sarcomeres
What does a skelatal muscle contraction require? Stimulation by a motor neuron
In "Bi", what does the number of origins mean? Bi meant two origins - biceps bachii (it attaches at two points)
What is the extreme extension of a joint beyond its normally straight position Hyperflexion
What involves bending a joint so as to decrease the angle of the joint? Flexion
What involves straightening a joint, increasing the angle between the bones? Extension
What involves moving the foot upward? Dorsiflexion
What involves moving the toes downward (toward the plantar surface) Plantar flexion
What is the movement of a body part away from the midline of the body? Abduction
What is the movement of a body part toward the midline of the body? Adduction
What is it called when the distal end of an appendage, such as the arm or leg, moves in a circle? Circumduction
What provides an attachment point from some abdominal muscles and is an important landmark for CPR? Xiphoid process
What is the Acromion process? Extension of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle
What is the long bone of the upper arm called? Humerus
What are the parts of the long bone? (Be prepared to label) Diaphysis (shaft), Medullary cavity, Endosteum, Bone Marrow, Perisoteum
Where does bone lengthening occur for a fixed period? Epiphyseal plate "growth plate"
What type of fracture causes the bone to splinter rather than break completely? (Typically occurs in children) Greenstick fracture
What type of fracture is when the bone is broken into several places & most likely to occur in car accidents? Comminuted fracture
What is the epimysium? (Be prepared to label) Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all the muscle fibers together
What does anaerobic respiration mean? Without oxygen
Created by: tandkhopkins