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Module 5 & 6

TermDefinition
Frontalis Raises the eyebrows when glancing upward
Brachialis The prime mover when flexing the forearm
Rectus abdominis Flexes the lumbar region of the spinal cord to cause bending over at the waist
Deltoid Abducts flexes and rotates the arm
Triceps brachii The prime mover when extending the forearm
Sternocleidomastoid Flexes the head
Latissimus dorsi Adducts the humerus and extends the upper arm backward, such as when climbing or swimming
Gastrocnemius One of the bulging muscles in the calf
Iliopsoas Flexes the thigh
Trapezius Raises and lowers the shoulders
Pectoralis major Flexes and adducts the upper arm, such as when climbing or hugging
Sartorius The longest muscle in the body;aids in flexion of the hip and knee
Quadriceps femoris most powerful muscle in the body
External intercostals Elevate the ribs during inspiration
What is the function of flat bones? Thin, flat, and often curved bones. Send, flat, and often curved bones. They protect organs and some provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles
Epiphysis the head of each long bone
Articular cartilage Covering the surface of the epiphysis and cartilage
Diaphysis The central shaft like portion of the bone
Periosteum A dense fibrous membrane covering the shaft
Medullary cavity The cerebral hollow portion
What kind of tissue is bone made of bone tissue or Matrix consists of collagen fibers and crystalline salts
Describe the compressional strength calcium salts allowed bones to resist strong squeezing forces
Discuss the action of the yellow bone marrow Saturated with fat and replaces red marrow over time
What is the skeleton in a developing fetus made of Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
Discuss the fontanels Soft spot
Discuss the endochondral ossification Cartilage turns to bone in long bones
List the nutrients necessary for proper bone growth Calcium phosphorus vitamins a c and d
Define greenstick fracture and what age group does this common occur in Splits the bone like a green stick and it happens to kids
Define commuted fracture and what is the common cause for this type of fracture smashing of several bones and happens in car accidents
How long does it take for uncomplicated fractures to heal 8 to 12 weeks
how many bones do most adults have 206
axial skeleton consists of the following bones Skull, spine or vertebral column, and thorax, or ribs
Describe the sinuses and how do sinuses produce sound production 4 pairs of sinuses filled with air open into the internal nose; they lighten the skull and act as resonators for a sound production
List the five sections of the vertebral column Circle, thoracic, Lombard, sacral, coccyx
Scoliosis Lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Hunchback
Lordosis swayback a lumbar curvature
Vertebral foramen An opening that allows passage of spinal cord
Body The weight-bearing portion
Spinous process Projects posteriorly from the vertebra
Transverse processes Extend from each side of the vertebrae also serves as attachment points for muscles and ligaments
The design of the intervertebral disc to support Weight and absorb shock
What are true ribs Ribs 1 through 7 and attach to the sternum
Scapula Shoulder blade
Acromion process an extension of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle
Radius One of the two bones of the lower arm thumb side
Proximal head a distinctive disc that rotates on the humerus when the Palm is turned forward and back
Humerus Long bone of the upper arm
Radial tuberosity Where the biceps muscle attaches to the Bone
How many bones are in the wrist 8
Which bone is longest and strongest bone in the body Femur
Describe the patella Kneecap a triangular sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the knee
Pivot joint Formed by the first and second cervical vertebra allows bones to rotate
Hinge joint Allows only back-and-forth movements for example the elbow
Gliding joint Two relatively flat bone surfaces slide over each other for example tarsal bones of the ankle
Ball and socket joint Ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cup light socket of another bone offers widest range of motion of all joints for example shoulder and hips
Saddle joint The services of both bones are shaped like the surface of a saddle when perched on top of each other they move back and forth and from side to side found only in thumbs
Condyloid joint Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on another for example distal end of radius with the carpal bones of the wrist
Cardiac muscle Involuntarily it appears striped and it's only in the heart
Smooth muscle involuntary non striated found in digestive tract, blood vessels, bladder, Airways and uterus
Skeletal Voluntary, striated, and attached to the Bone for movement
Muscle fiber Skeletal muscle cell
Epimysium Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all the muscle fibers together
Muscle tone A continuous state of partial muscle contraction in which muscles are at their optimal resting
Threshold A minimum voltage needed to cause muscle fiber contraction
What affects the force of contraction Affected by the size of the muscle, the degree of stretch, and the number of muscle fibers Contracting
Discuss the process of how the body needs the oxygen needs during exercise Aerobic respiration of fatty acids to creatine phosphates to anaerobic respiration of glucose to aerobic respiration of glucose
Prime Movers The main muscle triggering the movement
Synergists The muscles that assist
Antagonist The muscles balancing these movements
What are the muscles involved in breathing External intercostals, internal intercostals, and diaphragm
Biceps brachii Assist the brachialis when flexing the forearm
Brachioradialis
Helps the brachialis and biceps brachii Flex the forearm
Vastus lateralis and vastus medialis Part of the femur muscle group it's the prime mover for knee extension
Gluteus maximus The book East muscle of the body. It produces the back swing of the leg when walking and provides most of the power for climbing stairs
Created by: Ahowerton