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Module 5&6 A&P

Bone Functions Shape, support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance
Flat bones Thin, flat often curved bones, the protect organs and some provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles
Diaphysis Hollow cylinder made of compact bone; gives the bone strength, central shaft- like portion of bone
Articular cartilage Covers the epiphysis; eases the movement of the bone within a joint
Red bone marrow Fills the medullary cavity in children, in adults, most marrow has turned to yellow marrow
Bone matrix consist of... Collagen fibers and crystalline salts, matrix of bone is hard and calcified making it unique from other connective tissue
Compressional strength Calcium salts allow bones to resist strong squeezing forces
Red Bone marrow Produces red blood cells
Yellow bone marrow Saturated with fat, not able to produce blood cells, replaces red bone marrow overtime
First skeleton in develope fetus is composed of Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
Endrochondral ossification Cartilage begins to turn into bone, begins in long bones
Frontanels "Soft spots", part of the newborns skull, allows safe compression of head while passing through birth canal, allows skull to expand as brain grows, completely modified by age 2, consist of fibrous connective tissue
Bone lengthening occurs at the..... Epiphyseal plate for fixed period, growth plate
Vitamins and minerals need for bone growth Calcium, phosphorus, vitamins A C and D
Greenstick fracture Fracture is incomplete
Comminuted fracture Bone is broken into pieces, most likely to occur in a car accident
Adult skeleton has 206 bones
Head Prominent expanded end of a bone
Trochanter A large process, found only in the femur
Tuberosity A rough, raised bump; usually for muscle attachment
Foramen a round opening, usually a passageway for vessels and nerves
Meatus A tube like opening
Condyle A rounded knob, usually fits into a fossa on another bone to form a joint
Axial skeleton 80 bones, skull, spine, ribs
Kyphosis Thoracic curve
True pelvis Wide and shallow in females and narrow and deep in males, females have a larger pelvic outlet and wider pubic arch than males
Femur Longest and strongest bone in the body. It articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form ball and socket joint (hip)
Patella Also known as the kneecap, a triangular sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the knee
Fibula Slender bone of the lower leg, stabilize ankle, no weight
Synovial joints Freely moveable joints contain a fluid filled joint capsule.
Pivot joint Formed by the first and second cervical vertebrae, allows bones to rotate
Hinge joint Allows only back and forth movements
Gliding joints Two relatively flat bone surfaces slide over each other
Ball and socket joints Ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cup like socket of another bone, wider range of motion
Saddle joint Both bones shaped like saddle, move back and forth and side to side
Condyloid joint Oval surface on another oval surface
Tendons attach Muscle to bone
Shoulder Ball and socket joint, has the great range of motion of any joint, most likely joint to dislocate
Elbow Consist of two articulations:between the humerus and the ulna, hinge joint
Hip Ball n socket joint, more stable than shoulder, socket is deeper than the shoulder joint
Types of muscles Cardiac, smooth and skeletal
Cardiac muscle Involuntary, appears striped or striated, found only in the heart
Smooth muscle Involuntary, non striated, found in digestive tract,blood vessels, bladder, airways and uterus
Skeletal muscle Voluntary, appears markedly striated, attached to the bone and causes movement of body
Muscle fiber Skeletal muscle cell
Epimysium Layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all the muscle fibers together
Muscles attach to bone By tendons- strong cords of fibrous connective tissue
Skeletal muscle contractions required.... Stimulation of motor unit
Muscle tone A continuous state of partial muscle contraction in which muscles are at there optimal resting length
Threshold The minimum voltage needed to cause muscle fiber contraction
Incomplete tetanus The condition of rapid contraction with only partial relaxation
Anaerobic respiration Generate energy from glucose for activity
Prime mover The main muscle triggering the movement
Synergists The muscle that assist
Antagonist Muscles balancing these movements
Number of origins Bi means two origins- biceps brachii
Sternocleidomastoid Flexes the head
Frontails Raises the eyebrows when glancing upward or when showing surprise
Muscles used for breathing External intercostal, internal intercostal, and diaphragm
Deltoid Abducts, flexes, and rotates the arm ,,,swimming
Pectoralis major Flexes and adducts the upper arm,,,, climbing or hiking
Trapezius Raises and lowers shoulders, stabilizes the scapula durning movement
Latissimus dorsi Adducts the humerus, extends the upper arm
Iliopsoas Flexes thigh
Sartorius Longest muscle in body, aids in flexing of hip and knee
Quadriceps femoris Most powerful muscle in the body
Bulging calf muscle consist of Gastrocnemius and soleus
Intra membrane ossification Frontanels, allows safe compressions, allows skull to expand as the brain grows, completely ossified by age 2, consist of fibrous connective tissue
Uncomplicated fracture heals 8-12 weeks
Four pairs of sinuses filled with air open into the internal nose; lighten the skull and act as resonators for..... Sound production
Acromion process Extension of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle
Synovial fluid Lubricates the joints, nourishes the cartilage, and contains phagocytes to remove debris
Ligaments attach Bone to bone
Scoliosis Spine curves to the side
Lordosis Lumbar curvature
Brachialis Prime mover when flexing the forearm
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne
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