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Module 3&4 A&P

Plasma membrane Defines the boundary of the cell and regulates the passage of substance into and out of the cell.
Phospholipids Form the bulk of the membrane
Cholesterol Molecules scattered within the phospholipid molecules; the stiffen and strengthen the plasma membrane.
Proteins Embedded in various spots in the membrane. They fulfill various functions.
Nucleus Control center; contains all of the cells genetic information, center of the cell
Nuclear envelope Doubled layer membrane around the nucleus
Nuclear pores Allow molecules to pass into and out of the nucleus
Nucleous Manufactures ribosomes
Chromatin Threadlike structures composed of DNA and protein that fill a cells nucleus
Golgi apparatus Processes proteins and packages them for export to other parts of the body
Centrioles Play a role in cell division
Lysosomes Contain various enzymes that help break down protein the cell doesn't need; also known as "cellular garbage disposals"
Mitochondria Cells "powerhouse"
Cytoskeleton Supporting framework of the cell
Cilia Hair-like processes along the surfaces of a cell; help sweep particles along a path
Microvilli Typically found in cells charged with absorbing nutrients (intestines)
Diffusion Particles move across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Osmosis Water moves across a semipermeable membrane from a area of lower concentration of solute to an area of higher concentration of solute.
Osmotic pressure Water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis
Isotonic A solution with the same concentration of solute as that inside the cell; most common IV fluid given
Hypertonic A solution with a higher concentration of soluts as that inside the cell
Filtration Water and solute move through a semipermeable membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure.
Hydrostatic pressure of blood Inside the capillaries forces water and dissolved materials (such as nutrients) into the surrounding tissue fluid
Facilitated diffusion Depends on protein molecule in the cell membrane. (Ex. Glucose going to cells)
DNA Double strand, sequence of bases is the genetic code. Each nucleotide consist of one sugar, one phosphate group, and one of four possible types of nitrogen bases
RNA Single strand, contains the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose, contains uracil instead of thymine
Four categories of tissue Epithelial, connective, nervous, muscular
Stem cells Can differentiate into many different types of cells
Embryonic stem cells Occur in the early embryo, they can differentiate into more than 200 kinds of specialized cells
Epithelial tissue Covers body surface,lines cavities and organs,
Key functions of epithelial tissue Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion
Transitional epithelial tissue Multiple layers, when stretched, cell layers decrease and cell shape changes from cuboidal to squamous (ex. Bladder)
Simple squamous Single layer of flat, scale like cells, allows for ready diffusion or filtration because of thinness
Simple columnar Single layer of columnar cells; lines the intestines, secretes mucous by goblet cells
Exocrine glands Secrete products into ducts
Endocrine glands Secrete hormones into blood
Connective tissue Most widespread tissue, purpose: connect, support, bind, or protect organs, the matrix consist of varying kinds and amounts of protein fibers and fluid
Connective tissue key component Extracellular matrix
Types of connective tissue Fibrous connective, cartilage,bone,blood
Adipose Dominated by fat cells, helps insulate the body to conserve heat
Cartilage Contains no blood vessels, heals slowly or not at all
Fibrocartilage Forms the disc between vertebrae
Bone Called osseous
Mineral crystals Responsible for the hardness of bone
Blood Has liquid extracellular matrix (plasma)
Nerve tissue High degree of excitability and conductivity
Neuroglia Protect and assist neurons
Main structures of a neuron Soma, dendrites,axon
Soma Neuron large cell body
Dendrites Receive impulses from other cells that they transmit to the soma
Muscle tissues Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal tissue Striated, voluntary
Smooth tissue Lines the walls of many organs
Tissue repair Blood clot and granulation tissue forms
Blood clot White blood cells begin to ingest bacteria and cellular debris
Granulation tissue Connective tissue that fills in the wound cavity and forms scar tissue
Tissue repair may occur by either Regeneration or fibrosis
Fibrosis Damaged tissue is replaced with scar tissue, does not restore normal function
Membranes Consist of epithelial or connective tissue
Three types of epithelial membranes Mucous, cutaneous, serous
Mucous membrane Line body surface that open directly to the body's exterior ( ex.. Mouth)
Cutaneous membrane Also known as skin, the body's largest membrane
Serous membrane Secretes serous fluid, which helps prevent friction as the heart beats and the lungs expand
Membranes in general Line body cavities, cover body surfaces, separate organs from each other
Epidermis Outermost layer, obtains oxygen and nutrients by diffusion
Dermis Composed of connective tissue, contains collagen,elastin, and reticular fibers,has blood vessels,sweat glands,hair, nerve endings
Hypodermis Connective tissue, binds skin to underlying tissue
Stratum basale Innermost layer of epidermis, produces new skin cells
Stratum corneum Outermost layer of the epidermis, consist up to 30 layers of dead flat keratin coated cells
Keratin Tough, fibrous protein, found in hair, nails, and outer layer of skin
Melanin Protect the nucleus from uv exposure
Cyanosis Blue tint
Jaundice Yellow discoloration
Albinism Extremely pale skin white hair and pink eyes, cause is genetic mutation
Erythema Abnormal redness
Pallor Pale skin
Function of skin Protection-prevents microorganism from invading body, barrier, vitamin d production,thermoregulation- nerves cause blood vessels in the skin to dilate or constrict to regulate heat loss
Arrector pilli muscles Stands hair up on arms and legs
Hair obtains its color from... Melanin
Alopecia Excessive hair loss
Clubbing on nails from oxygen deficiency.... Due to lung disease
Eccrine glands Produce sweat which helps maintain body temperature
Body looses about 500 ml of insensible perspiration daily
Bacteria Cause body odor
First degree burn Involves only the epidermis
Third degree burns Full thickness burn, may not be painful because burnt nerve endings
Eschar Dead tissue resulting from a burn, no blood supply immune cells cannot reach healing tissues
Rule of nines Divides body into 11 areas of 9 %
Squamous cell carcinoma Characterized by hard, raised, red, scaly tumors; arises from epithelial cells
Basale cell carcinoma Most common typer, characterized by papules with central crater pearly edge rarely spreads.
Melanoma Malignancy in a nervous (mole) the most serious typer, often fatal if not treated quickly
Acne Inflammation of sebaceous glands, especially during puberty
Created by: Kylee_cheyenne