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A&P Artic&Swallowing

Terms and functional implications and bones and stuff

Term Info about it
Articulation The process of joining two elements (bone to bone, muscle to bone etc.) together. In speech, it is the shaping of phonemes.
Mobile Articulators Tongue, mandible, velum (soft palate), lips, cheeks, faucial pillars (arches-uvula), pharynx, larynx, hyoid bone
Immobile Articulators Hard palate, alveolar ridge, teeth
Cranial Bones Frontal bone, parietal bones (paired), temporal bones (paired), occipital bone, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone
Facial Bones Mandible, maxilla, nasal bones, nasal conchae, palantine bones, vomer, zygomatic, lacrimal, hyoid
Frontal Bone unpaired, anterior, overlays frontal lobe. Articulates with the zygomatic and nasal bones. Orbital portion forms the superior surface of the eye socket
Parietal Bone Paired, overlays the parietal lobes bilaterally. Articulates with the frontal, temporal, occipital, and sphenoid bones.
Occipital Bone Unpaired, overlays the occipital lobe, articulates with the temporal, parietal and sphenoid bones. Houses the foramen magnum
Temporal Bone Paired, oberlays the temporal lobes. 4 Segments: squamous, tympanic, mastoid, petrous.
Ethmoid Bone Middle and superior nasal conchae; superior nasal septum. "core" of the cranium
Sphenoid Bone (looks like a butterfly) 3 processes: lesser wings, greater wings, pterygoid process. Scaphoid fossa, pterygoid fossa. CN II-VI pass through
Mandible Unpaired, lower jaw
Maxillae Paired, upper jaw. Makes up the hard palate, nose, upper dental ridge and inferior eye socket. Frontal process, zygomatic process, palatine process, premaxilla
Nasal Bones Articulates with: frontal bone superiorly, maxilla laterlly, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, nasal septal cartilage, form the nasal bridge
Nasal Conchae interior lateral surgace of nasal cavity. covered in mucosal lining. surface area.
Palantine Bone forms the posterior 1/4 of the hard palate, nasal cavity and part of eyesocket.
Vomer Bone Unpaired at midline. Inferior, posterior nasal septum. Alae form posterior boundary of nasal cavities. Vomer and perpendicular plate make up the septum of ethmoid bone.
Zygomatic Bone Maxillary process, temporal process, frontal process, zygomatic arch
Lacrimal Bone Small portion of lateral nasal wall. Tear ducts
Incisors front and bottom four teeth
Cuspids Canines. tearing stuff
Bicuspids Premolars
Molars Back teeth for grinding/chewing food.
Intrinsic tongue muscles Superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, vertical
Extrinsic tongue muscles Genioglossus, hyoglossus, chondroglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus
Velum Soft palate. Actively elevated except for nasal sounds
Elevators of the velum Levator beli palatini and Musculus uvulae (shortens the soft palate)
Depressors of the velum Palatolglossus (forms the anterior faucial arch) and palatopharyngeus (forms the posterior faucial arch -lowers the soft palate and pharyngeal constrictor)
Eustachian tube dilator Tenosor veli palatini (aeration of the middle ear Innervation CN V) 5
Elevators for the muscles of mastication Masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid
Depressors for muscles of mastication Digastricus, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, platysma
Mandibular Protrusion lateral pterygoid
Pharyngeal Constrictors of the pharynx Superior (forms the sides and back of the nasopharynx), Middle (narrows the diameter of the pharynx), Inferior (esophageal speech, swallowing)
Muscles of the pharynx Salpingopharyngeus-elevation of the lateral pharyngeal wall Stylopharyngeus-elevates and opens the pharynx
Which way does the tongue deviate Deviates toward the weak side. So left side weakness-deviates toward the left.
4 Factors affecting early motor control Gravity. Flexor-ectensor balance. Trunk control. Differentiation
What does DIVA stand for? Directions Into Velocities of Articulation
Directions Into Velocities of Articulation (DIVA) Utilizes auditory feedback and feedforward
Dysarthria Neuromuscular impairment (Consistent errors)
Apraxia neurological condition (Inconsistent errors)
Stages of Swallowing 1. Oral prepatory stage (mastication). 2. Oral stage (propulsion of bolus). 3. Pharyngeal stage (pharyngeal swallow). 4. Esophageal stage (esophageal transit)
Oral Preparatory Stage [mechanical] Bolus acceptance. Oral containment. Mastication. Bolus formation. Food mixed with saliva. Bolus kept on front of tongue
Oral Stage [1 sec] Posterior tongue base drops and bolus moves posteriorly. anterior tongue presses against hard palate. Bolus propelled posteriorly into oropharynx. Contact with anterior faucial pillars, velum, or posterior tongue triggers pharyngeal swallow
Pharyngeal Stage [1 sec] Velum elevates and narrows-levator and tensor veli palantini. Tongue base retracts-preventing food from reentering the oral cavity. Anterior faucial pillars move medially-sensors send info to medulla. Superior and medial pharyngeal constrictors
Pharyngeal substages Hyolaryngeal elevation and excursion-larynx & hyoid are pulled both upward and forward. Cricopharyngeus relaxation (bolus moves here=esoph stage). True VF adduct. Epiglottis inverts-covering top of larynx
Esophageal Stage Bolus passes through cricopharyngeus (UES). Cricopharyngeus contracts. Bolus passes through LES into stomach
Penetration Material moves into the laryngeal vestibule but not below the TVFs
Flash penetration material moves in/out of the vestibule with no residue
Aspiration material moves below the TFVs
Created by: Spaw14