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Body Structures

Review

TermDefinition
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
edema abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissue spaces
adhesion abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
mycosis any fungal infection in or on the body
excisional biopsy in which the entire lesion is removed
incisional biopsy in which only a small sample of the lesion is removed
inflammation body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and sometimes loss of function
organelle cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), robosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
positron emission tomography (PET) Computed tomography records the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical to produce a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity of body tissues to determine the presence of disease
gangrene death and decay of soft tissue, usually caused by circulatory obstruction, trauma or infection
infusion therapy delivery of fluids directly into the blood stream via a vein for treating various disorders; also called IV therapy
cauterize destruction of tissue by electricity, freezing, heat or corrosive materials
inspection general observation of the patient as a whole progressing to specific body areas
palpation gentle application of the hands to a specific structure or body area to determine size, consistency, texture, symmetry, and tenderness of underlying structures
(US) ultrasound/ ultrasonography High-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
perforation hole that completely penetrates a structure
(CT) computed tomography imaging technique in which an x-ray emitter rotates around the area to be scanned and a computer measures the intensity of transmitted x-rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography
(I&D) incision and drainage incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum, the serous membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity and covers its organs
blood chemistry analysis laboratory test, usually performed on serum, to evaluate various substances to determine whether they fall within a normal range
auscultation listening to the heart, bowel and lungs with or without a stethescope to assess the presence and quality of sounds
(DNA) deoxyribonucleic acid molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphragm muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
(CBC) complete blood count panel of blood tests used as a broad screening test for anemias, infections and other diseases
sepsis pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
febrile pertaining to a fever; also called pyretic
suppuration producing or associated with the generation of pus
hernia protrusion of any organ through the structure that normally contains it
(SPECT) single-photon emission computed tomography radiological technique that integrates computed tomography and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
ablation removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency
(Bx) biopsy removal of a representative tissue sample from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
resection removal of part or all of a structure, organ, or tissue
curettage scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette
assessment techniques sequence of procedures designed to evaluate the health status of a patient
organ-disease panels series of blood tests used to evaluate a specific organ (liver panel) or disease (anemia panel)
chromatin structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
rupture sudden breaking or bursting of a structure or organ
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
anastomosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
revision surgical procedure used to replace or compensate for a previously implanted device or correct an undesirable result or effect of a previous surgery
percussion tapping a structure with the hand or fingers to assess consistency and the presence or absence of fluids within the underlying structure
nuclear scan technique in which a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested or injected) and a specialized camera (gamma camera) is used to produce images of organs and structures
fluoroscopy technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays internal structures in continuous motion
radiography technique in which x-rays are passed through the body or area and captured on a film to generate an image; also called x-ray
(MRI) magnetic resonance imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce highly detailed, multiplanar, cross-sectional views of soft tissues
chromosome threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
laser surgery use of a high intensity laser light beam to remove diseased tissues, stop bleeding blood vessels, or for cosmetic purposes
endoscopy visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
anteroposterior AP
biopsy Bx, bx
complete blood count CBC
computed tomography CT
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
diagnosis Dx
incision and drainage I&D
lateral LAT, lat
left lower quadrant LLQ
left upper quadrant LUQ
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
positron emission tomography PET
radio frequency, rheumatoid factor RF
right lower quadrant RLQ
right upper quadrant RUQ
single-photon emission computed tomography SPECT
symptom Sx
treatment Tx
upper and lower U&L, U/L
ultrasound, ultrasonography US
Created by: LyndsayShowers
 

 



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