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Chapter 6

Bones & Skeletal tissues

the skeletal cartilage is surrounded by a layer of dense connective irregular tissue called the ___ perichondrium
the perichondrium contains blood vessels for: nutrient delivery
skeletal muscles attach to bones by: tendons
3 types of cartilage: hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic
articular, costal, respiratory and nasal are all ___ cartilage hyaline
hyaline cartilage provides: support, flexibility and resilience
elastic cartilage contains: elastic fibers
external ear and epiglottis is ___ cartilage elastic
you can find fibrocartilage in: menisci of knee, verterbal discs
which cartilage provide great tensile strength? fibrocartilage
which function of bones is considered a "metabolic function"? mineral and growth factor stage
hematopoeisis is: blood cell formation
support, protection, movement, mineral and growth factor stage, hemataopoesis, trigylceride and hormone production are the functions of the___ bone
fat storage is a.k.a trigycleride
fat is stored in: bone cavities
skeletal muscles use ___ as a lever to move the body and its parts bone
calcium and phosphate are released into the: bloodstream
___ protects against obesity, diabetes and glucose intolerance hormone production
osteocalan a hormone that helps regulate bone formation
___ makes up 90% of protein found in bone collagen
the humerus is a type of __ bone long
___ bones are longer than they are wide long
the sterum, scapulae, ribs and most skull bones are all __ bones flat
flat bones are: thin, flat, slightly curved bones
the spongy bone is called: diploe
the vertebral and coxal bones are ___ bones irregular
irregular bones are: complicated shapes
this bone varies in size and number in different people. it is also cubed shaped. short bones
short bone examples are: wrists, ankles, kneecap (patella)
this is a special type of short bone that forms in tendons &alter direction of pull sesamoid bones
appositional growth growth from the outside
increase in LENGTH of bones is ___ growth appositional
increase THICKNESS of bones is ___ interstital growth
Interstital growth involves growth from the__ inside
the compact bone has ___ osteons
the __ bone is the external layer and is smooth and solid compact
does the spongy bone have osteons?
honeycomb of flat pieces of bone deep to compact is called the ___ of the spongy bone trabeculae
this membrane covers the trabeculae of spongy bone endosteum
this white double layered membrane covers external surfaces except joint surfaces periosteum
hematopoietic tissue is a.k.a red marrow
osteoblasts: build bone
this cell of the bone tissue is responsible for bone growth. osteoblast
osteogenic cells are __ active stem cells
bone-forming cell that lies within a lacunae is called an: osteocyte
osteocytes __ and ___ bone matrix monitor and maintain
responsible for breaking the bone down - bone resorption cells osteoclasts
this hormone modulate activity of growth hormone and ensures proper proportions: thyroid hormone
the growth hormone is most important in: infancy & childhood
the hormone that promotes adolescent growth spurts: testosterone (males) and estrogen (females)
older bones are more brittle because: calcium salts crystallize - fractures more easily
chemical composition of bone: organic and inorganic compounds
the organic compounds of the bone are__ bone cells and osteoids
the inorganic compounds of the bone are___which make up 65% of mass mineral salts
what makes bones hard? minerals: calcium + phosphate
__ makes bones strong collagen
hematoma is: a blood clot
steps in fracture repair: a hematoma forms, fibrocartilage callus forms, bony callus forms, bone remodeling occurs
when a bone breaks, ___ in bone and surrounding tissues are__ blood vessels, torn.
calcium functions in? muscle contraction, cell division, nerve impulse transmission
final bone structure resembles to original b/c it responds to the same ___ mechanical stressors
reduction is a type of fracture treatment that: realigns the broken ends of bones
with a closed reduction ___ physicians manipulate to correct position
surgical pins or wires are needed to secure ends in an __ reduction open
bones has a good supply of __ and ___ blood , nerves
6 type of common fractures comminuted, compression, spiral, greenstick, depressed & epiphyseal
comminuted fracture bone fragments into 3 or more pieces
this fracture is particulary common in old people comminuted fracture
compression fracture bone is crushed
this fracture is common in a fall compression fracture
spiral fracture is a common ___ fracture sports
a ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone. this is classified as a ___ fracture spiral
___fracture is a common skull fracture depressed
depressed fracture is when: a broken bone is pressed inward
greenstick fracture when a bone breaks incompletely
in a greenstick fracture, one side of the shaft ___, while____ breaks, the other side bends
common fracture in children greenstick
when the epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate, this is classified as an ___ fracture epiphyseal
when cartilage cells are dying and calcification of matrix is occurring this is known as a: epiphyseal fracture
the parathyroid hormone controls: blood calcium levels
stress on bone build bones is known as: wolfe's law
hyperexcitability is when the levels are: too low
osteomalacia is: soft weak bones - poorly mineralized
in osteomalacia, ___ are not adequate calcium salts
osteomalacia of children is called: rickets
cause of rickets vitamin D deficiency / insufficient calcium iintake
bowed legs & other deformities form with: rickets
Created by: Mariahj25