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Chapter 5

Integumentary System

integumentary system functions protection, body temperature regulation, blood resevoir and excretion
if body temperature is normal and unnoticable sweating is occuring, ___ perspiration occurs insensible
___ perspiration occurs when body temperature rises, noticeable sweating occurs sensible
the skin secretes natural antbiotics called: defensins
the epidermis is made up of ___ tissue stratified squamous epithelium
what is the outermost protective shield of body? epidermis
epidermis has 5 layers called stratum basale, stratum spinsoum, stratum granulosom, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
which layer is only found in thick skin? stratum lucidum
melanin is produced in the stratum ___ layer basale
the deepest epidermis layer attached to dermis is called the stratum basale
the stratum basale has a single row of __ cells mitotic
the cell appearance changes in the stratum ___ layer granulosum
what happens in stratum granulosum layer? keratinization begins, nuclei and organelles disintegrate and cells flatten
keratinization helps: form keratin
there are no hair follicles in this layer: stratum lucidum
this is known as the horny layer ___ stratum corneum
which layer is 20 to 30 rows of dead flattened cells? stratum corneum
tactile (merkel) cells are sensory touch receptors
dendritic (langerhans) cells are macrophages - which is key activator to immune system
keratinocytes are tightly connected by ___ desmosomes
___ are most cells of the epidermis keratinocytes
the dermis is composed of ___ tissue dense irregular connective
the dermis contains: nerve fibers, blood, lyphatic vessels, hair follicles, oil and sweat glands
cells in the dermis macrophages, fibroblasts, mast cells and leukocytes
2 layers of dermis: papilary and reticular layer
dermal papillae contains: mesisners corsuscles (touch receptors) and free nerve ending (pain receptors)
hypodermis is also known as the subcutaneous layer
the ___ helps insulate and regulate body temperature hypodermis
3 pigments that contribute to skin color: carotene, melanin and hemoglobin
carotene yellow to orange pigment - most noticeable in palms and soles
___ is the only pigment made in skin melanin
__ can be converted to vitamin A for vision carotene
hemoglobin pinkish hue of fair skin
cyanosis low oxygen - blue skin color
erythema hypertension, inflammation, allergy - redness
anemia, low blood pressure, fear or anger - pale skin color pallor
jaundice liver disorder - yellow cast
clotted blood beneath skin - black or blue marks bruises
malignant means: cancerous
benign is: non cancerous
most skin cancers are ___ and do not metastasize benign
risk factors of cancer overexposure to UV radiation, frequent irritation of skin
least malignant & most common type of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma - base layer of epidermis
the more melanin you have , your body can absorb ___ UV rays more
squamous cell carcinoma 2nd most common type of skin cancer - does metastasize
melanoma is the cancer of ___ melanocytes
___ is the most dangerous and highly metastatic cancee melanoma
___ is resistant to chemo melanoma
key to survival of melanoma is: early detection
edema means: swelling
___ carcinoma is removed surgically and treated by radiation squamous cell carcinoma
____ burns involve epidermal damage only 1st degree
redness, swelling and pain are all signs of___ 1st degree burns
2nd degree burns involves the: epidermal and dermal layer
a sign of a 2nd degree burn is often: blistering
1st and 2nd degree burns are known as ___ burns partial thickness
3rd degree burns are ___ burns full thickness
3rd degree burns involves the entire thickness of skin - blackened, gray or white color
skin gafting is usually involved in this type of burn: 3rd degree
3rd degree burns are not painful b/c: the nerve endings are destroyed and swollen
why does the hair turn gray/white? melanin production decreases and air bubbles replace melanin in hair shafts
hairs on the scalp guards the head against: physical trauma, heat loss and sunlight
___ determines the condition, and how much fluid has to be replaced rules of nines
__ and __ affect hair growth nutrition & hormones
associated with each hair follicle is a bundle of smooth muscle cells called: arrector pili
___ is resposible for goose bumps arrector pili
sweat glands are a.k.a sudoriferous glands
2 types of sudoriferous glands: eccrine (merocrine) and apocrine
eccrine glands secrete: sweat
these glands are found in the hands, soles and forehead and are the most numerous. eccrine
___ glands function in thermoregulation eccrine
apocrine glands secretion is: sweat + proteins + fatty acids
apocrine glands lie deeper in the __ dermis
this glands begins functioning at puberty apocrine
apocrine glands are odorless until: bacterial interaction - causes body odor
what are the 2 modified apocrine glands? mammary and ceruminous
ceruminous glands secrete: earwax
mammary glands secrete: milk
sebacious glands secrete: sebum (oil)
this gland is stimulated by hormones, especially androgens. sebacious gland
what is androgens? male sex hormone
this gland is known for softening hair and skin sebacious gland
sebum functions: prevents hair from becoming brittle & slows water loss when external humidity is low
Created by: Mariahj25



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