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APHG: UNIT 1 VOCAB

All the Unit 1 Vocab (GEO. Nature and Perspective) regardless of chapter

TermDefinitionExamples
Five Themes of Geography Location: position on the Earth's Surface Place: The physical and human characteristics of a location. Human-Environment Interaction: How humans and the environment affect each other. Movement: the study of movement of people, goods, and ideas from one place to another. Regions: area that has certain unifying characteristics such as climate, language, or history.
Anthropogenic Human-induced changes on the natural environment
Landscape an area that is less defined than a region and is described in an abstract manner
Built Landscape/Environment that part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; buildings, roads, bridges and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape the golden gate bride ( bridges or roads )
Sequent Occupancy the use and modification of the cultural landscape by successive cultural groups, reflecting differing cultural values , technologies and social relations
Cultural Landscape the natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment
Natural Landscape the physical environment unaffected by human activities; duration and near totality of human occupation of the earths surface assures that little or no "natural landscape" strictly defined remains intact. Opposed to cultural landscape. the Saharan desert, the Rocky Mountains,or Antarctica
Density the quantity of some feature (people, buildings, animals, traffic, etc.) per unit area or size
Arithmetic Density crude density; a statistic of population density calculated by dividing a countries population by its total land area; the number of people per square kilometer or square mile the total amount of cereal pieces in your bowl
Physiological Density a statistic of population density calculated by dividing a country's population by its area of arable land; the number of people per square mile or kilometer of farm-able land
Agricultural density the number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land; a variant of physiological density that excludes urban population Ohio 107 persons per square kilometer
Aggregation a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities; often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities Cultures,Religions,& Traditions occurring in one location
Breaking point the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies
Intervening Opportunity if one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, the supplier closer to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services; frequently used because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity
Hearth the area where an idea or cultural trait originates what originated where
Relocation Diffusion the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and so on from one place to another through migration to get to zaxbys travel a block past Mcdonalds
Expansion Diffusion the spread of ideas, innovations or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange hierarchical (crocs) or contagious (disease) diffusion
Hierarchical Diffusion (EX) diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of a physical or cultural connection between those places OR spread from a person of authority to other persons and places. The spread of the footwear (Crocs) Culture: Jews wearing Kipas to distinguish themselves from non-Jews.
Contagious Diffusion diffusion through direct contact with another person or another place OR the rapid widespread diffusion throughout a population.
Stimulus Diffusion diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place the use of the U.S dollar being copied but different in China where they use the yen
Culture A societies collective beliefs, symbols, values, forms of behavior and social organizations, together with its tools, structures and artifacts created according to the groups conditions of life; transmitted as a heritage to succeeding generations and undergoing adoptions, modifications and changes in the process OR A collective term for a group displaying uniform cultural characteristics Jews wearing Kipas to distinguish themselves from non-Jews
Independent Invention innovations developed in two or more unconnected locations by individuals or groups acting independently telephone; agriculture
Cultural Ecology the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments in which they live
Political Ecology the study of nature--society relations that concerns with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated big businesses cutting down trees for cities space
Culture Trait a single distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior; these are interrelated with each other, their collective function forms culture complex. Wearing of a turban. (Muslims); a pencil is a culture trait, football, bat, fishhook, keeping cattle, handshake, gestures, and house
Culture Complex a related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity; may be as basic as those associated with food preparation, serving and consumption or as involved as those associated with religious beliefs or business practices football match; Americans love cars (trait) the culture complex is how Americans use cars to show their social/economic status. Movies are oftentimes based on something auto related. The decorating of the cars at a wedding with cans and JUST MARRIED in the back.; Masai people of Kenya keep cattle. related trait includes the measurement of wealth based on number of cattle owned the consuming of milk and blood of the cattle and disdain for any work that is associated with cattle herding.
Culture Hearth a nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply
Fertile Crescent Crescent-shaped zone of productive lands extending from near the southeastern Mediterranean coast through Lebanon and Syria to the alluvial lowlands of Mesopotamia (in Iraq). once more fertile than today, this is one of the worlds great source areas of agricultural and other innovations. NA
Cultural diffusion the expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
Cultural Barrier prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or adoptable in that particular culture different languages/accents
Sense of Place state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character feeling emotional about a Church or feeling patriotic when in Washington, D.C.
Place a particular geographic location with its unique biophysical, cultural, and social characteristic NA
Perception of Place Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures. :people from North Carolina believing the south is a racist gun loving place
Placelessness the loss of locally distinctive characteristics and identity and replacement by standardized landscapes a road with popular stores that looks like it could be anywhere in the U.S.
Time-Distance Decay the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source Predicts that demand will peak at some distance relatively close to a source market and then decline exponentially as distance increases
Absolute Directon direction with respect to global location references, such as cardinal directions or macroscopic features using a compass to find your way and it points north
Relative Direction direction with respect to personal or cultural ideas rather than objective systems such as cardinal directions or landmarks left,right,up,down,etc.
Friction of Distance a measure of the restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction. Generally, the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction, or the great the cost of achieving the interaction
Distribution the spatial arrangement of a phenomenon
Dispersed/ Scattered Settlement a type of distribution in which there does not seem to be any type of agglomeration incidences are well separated from one another Dispersed settlements can be found throughout rural England with houses being miles apart.
Clustered/Agglomerated/ Nucleated Settlement a distribution in which data show distinct pockets of concentration
Absolution Location (EX) dictates where each place exist on a reference map using latitude and longitude to plot the absolute location of Chicago (41 degrees,53 minutes North Latitude and 87 degrees 38 minutes West longitude
Relative Location the location of a place compared to other places
Site the immediate environment of a place the site of south Louisiana is very wet and swampy
Situation (EX) the way in which a particular place relates to the space that surrounds it New Orleans is close to the mouth of the Mississippi River
Toponym place name Philippines; Gulfport
Linear Pattern straight pattern french long lots; houses along a street
Centralized Pattern clustered or concentrated at a certain place Central Business Districts of Cities in More developed countries
Random Pattern a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement The data in which how many immigrants migrate into the United States would be considered a random pattern due to the fact there is no constant pattern as to why.
Location Theory a logical attempt to explain the location pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated Alfred Weber’s theory of industrial location; the agricultural location theory contained the von Thunen model is a leading example
Possibilism geographic viewpoint--a response to determinism-- that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. ; view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilities of human choice.
Environmental Determinism the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism Jamaicans with their relaxed, laid back and attitudes. Environmental determinists would argue that this has to do with the fact that Jamaica is based in a tropical climate. On the other hand, environmental determinists say that a climate which has a frequent variability in the weather, such as in the Netherlands, will lead to more determined and driven work ethics.
Region an area on the Earths surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon Rain Forest, Northeast, South, The Americas
Formal/Uniform Region region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena French is spoken in Europe by a majority of different people
Functional/Nodal Region region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Perceptual/Vernacular Region a region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity "The South" or "the Mid-West"
Geographic Scale the scale at which a geographer analyzes a particular phenomenon; Generally the finer the scale of analysis the richer the level of detail in the findings global, national, census tract, neighborhood, etc
Spatial Distribution the arrangement of a phenomenon across the Earth's surface and a graphical display of such an arrangement is an important tool in geographical and environmental statistics. population throughout the state of Wyoming
Spatial Interaction a dynamic flow process from one location to another. ex. a general concept that may refer to the movement of human beings such as intraurban commuters or intercontinental migrants but may also refer to traffic in goods such as raw materials or to flows of intangibles such as information
Accessibility ease of movement between places Reaching of one location(going to the the store and back home)
Connectivity the state or extent of being connected or interconnected. roads, phones, the internet
Network entire pattern of nodes and links EX. Social Network, internet
Distance Decay the idea that, all else being equal, as the distance between two places increases, the volume of interaction between theses places decreases
Friction of Distance based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome. Because of this "friction," spatial interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances; quantity of interaction will decline with distance
Time-space Compression a term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity the shrinking world
Qualitative Data show the distribution of a particular class of information-- the interest is in where the things are and nothing is reported about it. Mississippi has a variety of rivers, wildlife, and hilly landscapes
Quantitative Data show the spatial characteristic of numerical data- shows variation from place to place
Boundary a versatile place that cuts through the rocks below and the airspace above The boundary between Eurasian plate and the Indian plate at the Himalayans
Distortion 6 types: Area: total land of a country on a world map may be more or less than on the ground; Shape: will be distorted; Direction: map cannot be used to navigate in a straight line; Bearing: a straight line drawn between two points on the map will not be the same when using a compass to navigate in the real world; Distance: calculating the distance on the ground from two points on the map = not accurate; Scale: only valid where the flat map projection intersects with the sphere of the Earth. NA
Fieldwork practical work conducted by a researcher in the natural environment, rather than in a laboratory or office. Charles Darwin traveling to the Galápagos Islands to study birds
Globalization the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale social media and pop culture
Geographic Information System is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
North and South Poles the points farthest north and south on the Earth along its axis NA
Parallel a circle draw around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Equator an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles NA
Longitude the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a global and measuring distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
Meridian An arc drawn between the North and South poles; A measure of Longitude NA
Prime Meridian 0 degrees Longitude NA
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180º longitude, although it deviates in several place to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east, the clock moves back 24 hours, and when you cross it going west the calendar moves ahead one day.The line of longitude that marks when each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
Small Scale Map refers to world maps or maps of large regions such as continents or large nations. In other words, they show large areas of land on a small space. They are called this because the representative fraction is relatively small. world map country map
Large Scale Map have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions city map; neighborhoods
Mental Map An individual's internal geographic understanding of a place. A mental image that people create from perceived information that reflects both the physical environment and the individual's social and cultural framework. No two ____ maps of the same place will look exactly the same NA
Reference Map Work well for locating and navigating between places. Show no interpretation. standard road map
Thematic/Proportional Symbol Map Present a specific spatial distribution or a single category data. widely-used form of thematic mapping. In this technique, the cartographer selects a symbol and alters its size, the area to be exact, based on the data values. There are three methods for setting symbol size: absolute scaling, apparent magnitude (perceptual) scaling, and range grading.
Statistical Map A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated dot map
Cartogram Map a thematic map that shows the values of a quantitative variable for each values of a quantitative variable fore reach region by shrinking or expanding the sizes of the regions to correspond with the variables value NA
Dot Map thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences Crime, car accidents, births
Choropleth Map a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area weather maps
Isoline Map a map line that connects points of equal or very similar values elevation, travel times in the united states
Azimuthal Projection Are planar (formed when a flat piece of paper is placed on top of the globe and a light source projects the surrounding areas onto the map). Either the North or South Pole is oriented at the center of the map if you plant a pushpin in the center of a sphere and draw lines in a downward motion, they'd all be proportional
Fuller Projection Maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses. Rearranges direction so the cardinal directions no longer have any meaning NA
Mercator Projection Invented by Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator for ships navigating across the Atlantic Ocean in 1569. The map is meant for direction. However, the projection distorts sizes of areas, particularly as you get closer to the North and South poles NA
Robinson Projection A map that curves inward to fix the distortion of the Mercator, but makes the landmasses look smaller than they really are. It is an attempt to balance all distortions by making errors in all 4 ways. As a result, it is a good projection for general use NA
Remote Sensing any of several techniques of obtaining images of an area or object without having the sensor in direct physical contact with it, as by aerial photography or satellite sensors satellites
Time Zones An area with an established standard time. There are 24. Each is 15 degrees apart. Prime Meridian. The meridian at 0 degrees longitude that intersects Greenwich, England. pacific standard
Greenwich Mean Time the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 degree longitude NA
Eratosthenes the head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of Earths circumference. His is also credited with coining the term geography. NA
Ptolemy Roman geographer-astronomer, author of Guide to Geography, which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude NA
Carl Sauer Geographer from the University of California at Berkley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This landscape results from the interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities NA
Activity Space the local areas within which people move or travel in the course of their daily activities. is a measure of individual spatial behavior that theoretically accounts for these individual and environmental differences and offers an alternative approach to studying geographic accessibility Mrs Kirks : school, Dunkin donuts down the street, home
Geocaching the recreational activity of hunting for and finding a hidden object by means of GPS coordinates posted on a website.
Township a square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United Sates into a series of these.
Section a square normally one mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 of these.
Gall-Peters Projection Introduced in 1974 by Arno Peters, and focuses on keeping landmasses equal in area. As a result, the shapes are distorted, and the map looks unfamiliar to viewers. More fairly shows the third world countries. Countries shapes are distorted, but area is accurate
Winkle-Triple Projection Adopted by National Geographical in 1998. Tries to minimize area, direction, and distance distortion. Line of latitude are slightly curved, nonparallel lines. Severe shape distortion of the polar regions near the east and west edges of the map
Time-Space Convergence idea that distance between some places is shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction among those places
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers. NA
Uneven development refers to the unequal distribution of people, resources, and wealth that is a fundamental characteristic of human geography wealth and poverty in China
space implies the extent of a area and can be in a relative and absolute sense an empty parking lot or a uninhabited patch of land
Latitude the angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of parallels a vertical line (ruler) or the measure of someone's height