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Medical Terminology

Ch. 6 Nervous System and Mental Health

TermDefinition
aphasia inability to speak
cepalalgia a headache, or general pain to the head
dysphasia difficulty speaking
hyperesthesia increased sensitivity to stimulation, such as touch or pain
neuralgia pain in nerve
neurasthenia a vague condition of body fatigue often associated with depression
paresthesia abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without an objective cause
Alzheimer's disease deterioration of brain function characterized by confusion, short-term memory loss and restlessness; Abbreviated AD
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis progressive loss of muscle cause by hardening of nervous tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord; also known as Lou Gehrig's disease; abbreviated ALS
cerebellitis inflammation of the cerebellum
cerebral aneurysm a type of cerebral vascular disease where a blood vessel that supplies the brain becomes dilated due to a weakening of its wall
cerebral arteriosclerosis a type of cerebral vascular disease characterized by hardening of the arteries that supply the brain
cerebral atherosclerosis a type of cerebral vascular disease where a buildup of fatty plaque on the inside wall of a vessel that supplies the brain results in reduce blood flow
cerebral embolism presence of an embolism (floating blood clot) in a blood vessel that supplies the brain
cerebral palsy a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement and motor skills; usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during a child's birth or during the first few years of the child life; abbreviated CP
cerebral thrombosis thrombosis (lodged blood clot) within blood vessels that supply the brain
cerebrovascular accident AKA; Stroke disruption of the blood supply to the brain resulting in functional losses or death abbreviated CVA
cerebrovascular disease disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels that supply the brain
coma AKA; deep sleep describes several levels of decreased consciousness
concussion injury to the brain caused by violent movement of the head; includes symptoms of vertigo and loss of consciousness
dementia decline or impairment of mental function that is characterized by memory loss disorientation and confusion; literally means "not in the mind"
duritis inflammation of the dura mater
encephalitis inflammation of the brain, usually cause by bacterial or viral infection
encephalomalacia softening of brain tissue,usually caused by deficient blood flow
epilepsy a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures
gangliitis inflammation of a ganlion
glioma a tumor of neuroglial cells
hemiparesis PARTIAL paralysis on one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body
hydrocephalus increased volume of CSF in the brain ventricles of a child before the cranial sutures have been sealed, causing enlargement of the cranium
meningioma benign tumor of the meninges,
meningitis inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by bacterial or viral infection
meningocele protrusion of the meninges through an opening caused by a defect in the skull or spinal column
meningomyelocele protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through the spinal column
monoparesis partial paralysis of one limb
monoplegia paralysis of one limb
multiple sclerosis the deterioration of the myelin sheath withing the brain,exhibited by episodes of localized functional losses abbreviated MS
myelitis inflammation of the spinal cord
narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by sudden uncontrollable acts of sleep
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neuroarthropathy a disease of the nervous system that results in pain within one or more joints
neuroma any tumor that originates from nervous tissue
neurosis an emotional disorder that involves a counterproductive way of dealing with stress
palsy paralysis of localized areas
paraplegia paralysis from the waist down
Parkinson's disease chronic degenerative disease of the brain characterized by hand tremors, rigidity,expressionless face and shuffling gait abbreviated PD
poliomyelitis inflammation of gray matter of the spinal cord caused by one of several polioviruses that often leads to paralysis; also called polio
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves at one time
psychopathy any disease affecting the mind
psychosis mental disorder characterized by a gross distortion of emotions and incapacity to recognize reality, relate to others, and cope with ordinary demands of daily life
psychosomatic pertaining to both the mind and body
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs also known as tetraplegia
radiculitis inflammation of the spinal nerve roots
radiculopathy a disease of spinal nerve roots
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve
seizure sudden uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain resulting in convulsions
shingles viral infection of the peripheral nerves that erupts as painful skin blisters along nerve tracts
syncope fainting usually caused by a sudden loss of blood flow to the brain
transient ischemic attack brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain that results in a temporary neurologic impairment and often precedes a CVA
analgesic an agent that relieves pain
anesthesia a process of treatment that results in a absence of felling or sensation
cerebral angiography x-ray photograph of the blood vessels in the brain following injection of contrast medium
computed tomography also called CT scan or CAT scan this procedure
craniectomy surgical excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
craniotomy incision into the skull to approach the brain
echoencephalograpghy use of ultrasonography or ultrasound to record brain structures abbreviated EchoEG
electroencephalography a procedure that records the electrical impulses of the brain abbreviated EEG
ganglionectomy surgical excision of a ganglion
lumbar puncture aspiration of CSF from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord abbreviated LP
magnetic resonance imaging use of magnets and computer imaging to identify structural details of soft tissues abbreviated MRI
myelogram x-ray photograph of the spinal cord following injection of a contrast dye
neurectomy surgical excision of a nerve
neurology the study of nervous system
neurolysis separating a nerve by removing adhesions
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy suturing of a nerve
neurotomy incision into a nerve
positron emission tomography brain scan tht provides a map of metabolic function within the brain that can be correlated to brain activity abbreviated PET scan
psychiatry branch of medicine that addresses mental, emotional and behavioral disorders
psychology study of human behavior
radicotomy incision into a nerve root
reflex testing diagnostic tests performed to observe the body's response to various stimuli
Created by: CelenaCamp