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A&P 1 Ch 2 Quiz

National College Nursing A&P 1 Ch. 2 quiz

anything that has mass and occupies space; cannot be created or destroyed matter
simple form of matter, a substance that cannot be broken down into 2 or more different substances element
there are ____ elements in the human body 26
there are ___ major elements in the human body 11
what are the 4 elements that make up 96% of the human body? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen
there are 15 ____elements that make up less than 2% of body weight trace
atom of two or more elements joined to form chemical combinations compound
the concept of an ____ was proposed by the English chemist John Dalton atom
atoms contain several different kinds of subatomic particles; atomic structure
positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus protons
neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus neutrons
negatively charged subatomic particles found in hte electron cloud electron
1)the number of protons in an atom's nucleus 2) the _______ is critically important; it identifies the kind of element atomic number
1) the mass of a single atom 2) it is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus atomic weight
in a stable atom, the total number of ________ in an atom equals the number of protons in nucleus electrons
the electrons form a ____ around the nucleus cloud
a model resembling planets revolving around the sun, useful in visualizing the structures of atoms bohr model
exhibits electrons in concentric circles showing relative distances for the electrons form the ____ nucleus
each ring or shell represents a specific ______ and can only hold a certain number of electrons energy level
the number and arrangement of electrons determine whether an atom is chemically______ stable
an atom with 8, or four pairs, of electrons in the outermost energy level is chemically_____ inert
an atom w/o a full outermost energy level is chemically ________ active
atoms with few or more than 8 electrons in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability octet rule
______ of an element contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons isotopes
isotopes have the same __________ and therefore the same basic chemical properties as any other atom of the same element but they have a different atomic weight atomic number
an unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown and emits nuclear particles and radiation radioactive isotope (radioisotope)
interaction between 2 or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in their outermost energy levels chemical reaction
2 or more atoms joined together molecule
consists of molecules formed by atoms of 2 or more elements compound
2 types unite atoms into molecules chemical bonds
formed by transfer of electrons; strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together ionic, or electrovalent bond
formed by sharing electron pairs between atoms covalent bond
much weaker than ionic or covalent bonds results from unequal charge distribution on molecules hydrogen bond
form when electrons are unequally shared (ex. water molecule); polar molecules have regions with partial electrical charges resulting from unequal sharing electrons among atoms; areas of different partial charges attract one another to form _________ hydrogen bonds
other weak attractions attract molecules to each other through difference in ________ electrical charge
______ involve the formation or breaking of chemical bonds chemical reactions
how many basic types of chemical reaction are involved in physiology? 3
combining of 2 or more substances to form a more complex substancel formation of new chemical bonds a+B ---->AB Synthesis reaction
breaking down of substance into 2 or more simpler substances; breaking of chemical bonds: AB-----> A+B decomposition reaction
decomposition of 2 substances and, in exchange, synthesis of 2 new compounds from them: AB+CD ------> AD+CB exchange reaction
occur in both directions reversible reactions
all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells metabolism
_____ tears down catabolism
chemical reactions that break down complex compounds into simpler ones and release ______ energy
______ is a common catabolic reaction hydrolysis
ultimately, the end products of catabolism are _____, ______ and other waste products carbon dioxide, water
more than half the energy released is transferred to ______; which is then used to do cellular work ATP
______builds up anabolism
chemical reactions that join _______ molecules together to form more _____ molecules simple, complex
chemical reaction responsible for anabolism is _________ dehydration synthesis
**few have carbon atoms & none have C-C or C-H bonds inorganic compounds
have at least 1 carbon atom and at least 1 c-c o c-h bond in each molecule organic molecules
organic molecules often have functional groups attached to the ______________ core of the molecule carbon-containing
the body's most abundant and important compound water
allows water to act as an effective solvent; ionizes substances in solution polarity
the solvent allows _______ of essential materials throughout the body transportation
water can lose and gain large amounts of heat with little change in its own temperature; enables the body to maintain a relatively constant temperature high specific heat
water requires the absorptions of significant amounts of heat to change it from a liquid to a gas; allows the body to dissipate excess heat high heat of vaporization
closely related to cellular respiration oxygen and carbon dioxide
required to complete decomposition reaction necessary for the release of energy in the body oxygen
produced as a waste product and also helps maintain the appropriate acid-case balance in the body carbon dioxide
large group of inorganic compounds that includes acids, bases, and salts electrolytes
substances that dissociate in solution to form______ (the resulting ______ are sometimes called electrolytes ions
positively charged ions are ______ cations
negatively charged ions are anions
common and important chemical substances that are chemical opposites acids and bases
room air is___% oxygen 21
blood has a p.h of ? 7.4
any substance that releases a hydrogen ion when in solution: proton donor acid
level of _____ depends on the number of hydrogen ions a particular acid will release acidity
electrolytes that dissociate to yield hydroxide ions (OH-) or other electrolytes that combine with hydrogen ions (H+); described as protein acceptors base
assigns a value to measures of acidity and alkalinity pH scale
pH of ? indicates neutrality 7
pH of less than 7 indicates ____ acidity
pH higher than 7? alkalinity
_____ maintain the constancy of pH; acts as "reservoir" for hydrogen ions: buffers
compound that results from chemical interactions of an acid and a base salt
reaction between an acid and base to for a salt and water is called? neutralization reaction
_______ describes compounds that contain C-C or C-H bonds organic
-organic compounds containing cargon, hydrogen and oxygen commonly called sugars and starches carbohydrates
simple sugars with short carbon chains; those with 6 carbons are hexoses (ex. glucose, whereas those with 5 are pentoses ( ribose, deoxyribose) monosaccharides
2 or more simple sugars that are bonded together through synthesis reaction disaccharide (2), polysaccharide (more than 2)
water-insoluble organic molecules that are critically important biological compounds lipids
major roles of lipids are? energy source, structural role, integral parts of cell membranes
most abundant lipids and most concentrated source of energy triglycerides or fats
the building blocks of triglycerides are _____ ( the same for each fat molecule )and ______ (different for each fat and determine the chemical nature) glycerol and fatty acids
types of catty acids saturated fatty acid (all available bonds are filled- worst) unsaturated fatty acid (has one or more double bonds)
triglycerides are formed by dehydration synthesis
_____ are fat compounds similar to triglycerides phospholipds
one end of the phospholipid is watersoluble (____) and the other is fat soluble (_______) hydrophilic, hydrophobic
phospholipids can join _ different chemical enviornments 2
phospholipds may form double layers called____ bilayers
Good cholesterol is _____ Bad cholesterol is ____ HDL LDL
main component in steroids - steroid nucleus
involved in many structural and functional roles steroids
commonly called tissue hormones; produced by cell membranes throughout the body prostaglandins
effects are many and varied; however, they are ____in response to a specific stimulus and are _________ released, activated
most abundant organic compounds; chainlike polymers proteins
building blocks of proteins amino acids
eight amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body essential amino acids
12 amino acids can be produced from the molecules available in the human body nonessential amino acids
amino acids consist of a ____ atom, an amino group, a _____ group, a hydrogen atom and a ____ carbon, carboxyl,side chain
protein is needed to ? heal
protein molecules are highly organized to show a definite relationship between ____ & _____ structure and function
what are the 4 levels of protein structure primary, secondary,tertiary,quaternary
refers to the number, kind and sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide chain held together by peptide bonds primary structure
polypeptide is coiled or bent into pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonds secondary structure
a secondary structure can be further twisted and converted to a globular shape; the coils touch in many places and are "welded" by covalent and hydrogen bonds tertiary structure
highest level of organization occurring when protein ontains more than one polypeptide chain quaternary structure
______ protiens have lost their shape and therefore their function denatured
DNA (in the nucleus) deoxyribonucleic acid
composed of deoxyribonucleotides, structuralunits composed of the pentose sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
what functions as the molecule of heredity? DNA
RNA ribonucleic acid
composed of pentose sure (ribose) phospate and nitrogenous base- RNA
smoe RNA are regulatory and act as enzymes (_______) or silence gene expression (_________) ribozymes, RNA interference
ATP is composed of? a) adenosine b)Ribose- a pentose sugar c) adenine- a nitrogen containing molecule
ATP has 3 phosphate subunits
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 2 extra phosphate groups to a nucleotide
Created by: athenia