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Cardiology General


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: genetics, prevalence, dx test, exam auto dom, most common sudden death <35 yo; dx via echo: asymmetric septal hypertrophy & LV outflow obstruction; squatting increases venous return & decreases murmur; standing increases venous pooling & murmur; SEM at LSB
benign flow murmurs ___ with valsalva diminish or do not change (HOCM increases)
CAD risk factors FH, male, hyperlipid, DM, HTN, inactivity, obese, smoking
thrombophlebitis mgmt Local heat & elevation, bed rest, NSAID, ASA, avoid long standing; assoc w/ DVT in 20%
A-fib mgmt hemo unstable: cardiovert; stable: consider rate ctrl (BB/CCB), anticoag, poss cardiovert
Venous thrombosis: 80% occur in: deep v. of calf
Syncope: types vasopressor; orthostatic hypotension; cardiogenic
A fib dx work up 12 ECG, echo, CXR, thyroid; poss Holter or stress test
Atypical CP, palps, anx d/o, sympathetic hyperreactivity; mild systolic click +/- MR; young F>M MV prolapse
MV prolapse mgmt Echo to dx; reassurance; BB for palps; ASA for TIA / CVA risk; surgery for severe MR
varicose veins most common in: saphenous veins
Inflammation, induration, erythema & tenderness along superficial v (usu long saphenous v) phlebitis
DVT mgmt: Heparin/Warfarin, Thrombolytic tx, Embolectomy, IVC filter if anticoags are CI
DVT RFs: Virchow’s triad; PG, ca, Limb trauma, Surgery
syncope: dx tests ECG; autonomic: tilt table, carotid massage; electrophysio; stress test
Created by: Abarnard