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modern westerneurope


absolution release from consequences, obligations, or penalties. a remission of sin or of the punishment for sin, made by a priest in the sacrament of penance on the ground of authority received from Christ.
king Louis XIV Louis XIV 1638-1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
napoleon Bonaparte A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804.
enlightenment European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by philosophers such as Descartes Locke and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe
john locke A seventeenth-century English philosopher. Locke argued against the belief that human beings are born with certain ideas already in their minds. He claimed that, on the contrary, the mind is a tabula rasa until experience begins to “write” on it.
industrial revolution The industrial revolution was a period of major industrialization that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution, beginning in Great Britain, quickly spread throughout the world.
laissez faire abstention by governments from interfering in the workings of the free market.
corporation a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Otto Von Bismarck Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg known as Otto Von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.
nationalism pride in and loyalty to ones country
archduke Ferdinand An Austrian prince, heir to the throne, whose assassination in Sarajevo in 1914 set off World War I.
trench of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
reparations payment for damages
Benito Mussolini Italian Fascist statesman, prime minister 1922–43
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler was the founder and leader of the Nazi Party and the most influential voice in the organization, implementation and execution of the Holocaust the systematic extermination and ethnic cleansing of 6mill. European Jews and millions of other non
appeasement making concessions to an aggressor in order to preserve peace.
kristallnacht On November 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews.
Spanish Civil War A war fought in the late 1930s in Spain. On one side were the Loyalists, Spaniards loyal to a recently elected government in the form of a republic; on the other side were fascists led by General Francisco Franco.
axis pact On this day in 1940, the Axis powers are formed as Germany, Italy, and Japan become allies with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin. The Pact provided for mutual assistance should any of the signatories suffer attack by any nation not already inv
blitzkrieg Germans for lightning war in which combined land and air forces launched a joint military attack.
Vichy government Image result for vichy government definition Vichy France, formally French State, French État Français,France under the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain from the Nazi German defeat of France to the Allied liberation in World War II.
operation Barbarossa codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
D-Day turning point in the war; day of invasion of Normandy - June 6, 1944; over 9,000 soldiers died
final solution the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
holocaust The systematic extermination of millions of European Jews, as well as Roma, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexuals, and political dissidents, by the Nazis and their allies during World War II.
Valkyrie was a German World War II emergency continuity of government operations plan issued to the Territorial Reserve Army of Germany to execute and implement in case of a general breakdown in civil order of the nation.
containment united states policy in the late 1940s and 1950s to stop Soviet expansion.
Marshall plan USA helped rebuild Europe by giving them money. This would increase foreign trade and prevent communism.
truman doctrine President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
NATO a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Berlin blockade/Airlift Mainzinternational crisis that arose from an attempt by the Soviet Union, in 1948–49, to force the Western Allied powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.
Berlin wall The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin.
European Union A political union, often called the EU, to which the member states of the EEC are evolving. Based on the Maastrict Treaty, it envisions the eventual establishment of common economic, foreign, security, and justice policies.