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Module 3

Heme 1 -- Chapter 9 Blood System Test Review

Hematology Study of blood and blood-forming tissue.
Hematologist Medical specialist in the study of hematology.
Blood is what type of tissue? Connective tissue because it connects to all body systems.
What is blood composed of? Plasma (straw-colored fluid), Formed elements (cells and cell fragments) and Series of cell types with different functions.
Total blood volume in average adult: Males -- 5 to 6 liters; Females -- 4 to 5 liters
Plasma Liquid portion of blood (straw-colored fluid; whole blood minus formed elements).
What does plasma do? Transports cellular elements (solid components) throughout the circulatory system.
Plasma is 90% _________ and 10% ______. 90% Water (H2O) and 10% Solutes
Solutes found in plasma are Electrolytes (raw sodium); Proteins (made of 4 amino acids); Fats (raw form of 9 lipids); Glucose (sugar); Bilirubin (from bile); and Gases (O2 and CO2).
Which are the most abundant solutes? Plasma proteins manufactured by the liver and grouped into 3 classes: Albumins; Globulins; and Fibrinogens.
Albumins Constitute 60% of all plasma proteins and maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure.
Globulins Constitute 36% of all plasma proteins and have 3 types: Alpha and Beta Globulins (both serve as transport for lipids and fat soluble vitamins; Gamma Globulins (serve as antibodies for immunity).
Fibrinogens Constitute 4% of all plasma proteins and are the largest of all plasma proteins. Essential for normal clotting.
Hemopoiesis Production of formed elements in the blood.
Hemocytoblasts Immature Blood Cells that develop from Undifferentiated stage; as they develop they go through Differentiation process and have a specialized function.
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells (RBCs) with biconcave shape and no nucleus to allow for greatest surface area for bonding with O2.
Mature RBCs Do not have a nucleus and have avg lifespan of 120 days. Main function is to transport O2; once released then absorbs CO2 (metabolic waste product) and returns to lungs to release through exhalation.
Hemoglobin Main component of RBCs consisting of Iron (heme) and Protein (globin).
Oxyhemoglobin When hemoglobin bonds to O2.
Deoxyhemoglobin When hemoglobin bonds to CO2.
Normal range of Red Blood Cells (RBCs): Males -- 4.5 to 6 million per cubic millimeter; Females -- 4.8 to 6 million per cubic millimeter
Leukocytes White Blood Cells (WBCs); larger than RBCs and fewer in numbers. Mature WBCs do not lose nucleus and have no hemoglobin.
There are 5 types of WBCs grouped into the following 2 categories: 1. Granulocytes (with granules -- phils); 2. Agranulocytes (without granules -- cytes)
Granulocytes 1. Neutrophils (phagocytic and destroy/engulf bacteria); 2. Basophils (secrete histamines during allergic reaction) and 3. Eosinophils (increase in numbers in response to allergic reaction)
Agranulocytes 1. Monocytes (phagocytic and destroy/engulf bacteria); 2. Lymphocytes (can be either phagocytic or produce antibodies that will destroy the bacteria)
Thrombocytes (aka Platelets) Small disc-shaped fragments of very large cells (megakaryocytes); are essential for normal clotting and contain no hemoglobin.
Average platelet count 250,000 to 500,000 platelets per cubic millimeter of blood.
Antigen Substance present ON the RBC that can stimulate the body to make antibodies.
Antibody Substance present IN the PLASMA that reacts in some way with the antigen that stimulated its formation.
Agglutination Combination of antigen and antibody that can cause abnormal clotting of red blood cells.
Coagulation Clotting to plug ruptured vessels and stop bleeding.
5 Steps necessary for proper clotting: 1. Thromboplastin (enzyme); 2. Prothrombin (blood protein); 3. Thrombin (active enzyme); 4. Fibrinogen (blood protein); 5. Fibrin (mesh for clotting)
Thrombus Formed clot that stays in vessel.
Thrombosis Condition in which a clot develops.
Embolism Abnormal circulatory condition when the formed clot dislodges and travels througout the bloodstream.
Embolus Dislodged clot -- in addition to blood clot it can be small bit of fatty tissue or air that gets lodged in a vessel.
Blood Types (4) A (Anti-B); B (Anti-A); AB (Anti A and B); O (not Anti anything)
rH Factor Negative (-) can give to any blood type since it does not have antibodies; but Positive (+) can only give to Positive (+) because it does have antibodies.
True Universal Receiver AB+
True Universal Donor O-
Created by: monkmaroni