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TheSkull

CCRI-Newport Q8

QuestionAnswer
alveoli found in both of the maxillary bones and the mandible. They are what we called sockets when we were in nursery school.
anterior fossa Contains the frontal lobe of the brain and the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid (lesser wings) bones.
auditory ossicles The three bones of the middle ear. They include the malleus, incus, and stapes. Functionally they are important because they amplify the pressure of vibrations of the ear drum associated with sound by about 20 times.
body (of the mandible) Has alveoli that secure the teeth. It is made up of two portions, inferiorly the base of the mandible and the superior portion, called the alveolar part of the mandible.
condyloid process Extends superiorly from the ramus of the mandible. It includes the head of the mandible which is functionally important as this is where the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone.
coronal suture Found between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones. It is an example of a synostosis.
coronoid process extends superiorly from the anterior portion of the ramus. It is important in elevation and retraction of the mandible. Technically, this process translates to mean resembling a crown.
cribriform plate Fibers of the olfactory nerve (I) pass into the nasal cavities on either side. Instead of there being one foramen on each side, there are many foramina. It is found on either side of the crista galli, forming part of the anterior fossa of the cranium.
crista galli It rises superiorly from the cribriform plate on its left and right sides. It extends superiorly between the frontal lobes of the brain. This helps stabilize the position of the brain.
ethmoid bone a single bone of the cranium. It is anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones. It forms most of the area between the nasal cavity and the orbit of the eye.
external auditory (acoustic) meatus Found in the temporal bone. Functionally it is important because sound enters the ear through this canal and comes in contact with the tympanic membrane (ear drum) at its deep end
external occipital protuberance a raised area on the midline of the occipital bone where the posterior wall meets the base of the skull. It is medial to the two superior nuchal lines.
facial nerve (VII) Travels through the internal auditory meatus and then the stylomastoid foramen of the temporal. It is a motor (to muscle for facial expression) and sensory (to anterior 2/3 of tongue for taste) nerve with parasympathetic fibers.
foramen magnum Several structures pass through this foramen. They include the medulla oblongata and the meninges that surround it, the ascending portions of the spinal accessory nerves (XI), and the two vertebral arteries.
foramen ovale This foramen of the sphenoid bone houses the mandibular nerve (V3) as it passes toward the mental foramen. This is the first of the three foramina it passes through.
foramen rotundum This foramen of the sphenoid bone houses the maxillary nerve (V2) as it passes toward the infraorbital foramen of the maxillary bone. This is the first of the three foramina it passes through.
frontal bone This bone is a single bone of the cranium and the face, forming the forehead. It forms the roof for each of the orbits and the majority of the anterior cranial fossa. Superiorly it forms the coronal suture with the parietal bones.
frontal sinuses The sinuses associated with the bones of the skull are air-filled cavities that are lined with mucous membranes. They are not well developed at birth.
greater wing This landmark of the sphenoid bone can be seen both on the outer surface of the skull as well as in the middle fossa of the cranium. It also makes up a large portion of the medial wall of the orbit.
hard palate Anteriorly the maxillary bone and posteriorly the palatine bone form this structure.
hyoid bone This bone does not articulate with any other bones. It is held in place by ligaments to the styloid process of the temporal bone and the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. It also has muscle attachments. It is considered part of the axial skeleton.
hypoglossal canal The hypoglossal nerve XII exits the skull through this structure.
hypoglossal nerve (XII) this is cranial nerve XII. It is a motor nerve serving the muscles of tongue. It exits the skull via the hypoglossal canal. It runs with the lingual (sublingual) artery medial to the digastric muscle.
incus One of the three auditory ossicles. In nursery school we called it the anvil. Functionally it is important because in association with the other ossicles it helps amplify the pressure of vibrations associated with sound by about 20 times.
inferior conchae There are two of these structures, one on the lateral wall of each nasal cavity. Their curved surface causes turbulence as air moves into the nasal cavity.
inferior orbital fissure Formed by the maxilla, the greater wing of the sphenoid, the palatine, and the zygomatic bones. The maxillary nerve (V2) passes through this fissure having come from the foramen rotundum and on its way to the infraorbital foramen.
infraorbital foramen Found in the maxillary bone, just inferior to the orbit. It is the third foramen through which the maxillary nerve (V2) passes to the face.
internal auditory (acoustic) meatus Found on the vertical portion of the petrous ridge of the temporal bone. The facial nerve (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerves pass into this canal. They separate once inside the temporal bone.
jugular foramen Between the temporal and occipital bones. The glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), spinal accessory (XI), and internal jugular vein all pass through this foramen.
lacrimal bone These two bones are of the face. They each contain the lacrimal canal which is functionally important as this is the passage for the tear duct. The canal terminates in the nasal cavity.
lambdoidal suture Found between the occipital bone and the two parietal bones. It is an example of a synostosis
lesser wing This structure is of the sphenoid bone which forms part of the anterior fossa of the cranium as well as part of the orbit. The projections that form a border with the middle fossa.
malleus One of the three auditory ossicles in the middle ear which is within the temporal bone. When we were in nursery school we called it the hammer. The "handle" of the malleus attaches to the eardrum.
mandible A single bone of the face. It articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and irritation of this joint leads to the condition known as TMJ syndrome. It also houses the mandibular and mental foramina.
mandibular (sigmoid) notch A concavity on the mandibular ramus between the condyloid and coronoid processes.
mandibular foramen This is the second foramen that the mandibular nerve (V3) passes through as it moves toward the mental foramen. Dentists usually try to anesthetize this nerve near this foramen when working on teeth in the mandible.
mandibular fossa This is the surface that the head of the condyloid process of the mandible articulates with. Although this is technically a hinge joint, it may also be rotated, depressed, elevated, protracted and retracted.
mastoid process This process is part of the temporal bone. It is the insertion for the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In fact it is this muscle that causes this landmark to develop.
maxillae (maxillary bones) These two bones are considered part of the face. They form the upper jaw, as well as the anterior two thirds of the hard palate. They also form the lateral walls of the nasal cavities, and a portion of the bony orbit of the eye.
maxillary nerve (V2) A branch off of the trigeminal nerve (V). It is a sensory nerve to the skin of the face, oral cavity, and teeth.
mental foramen This is the last foramen that the mandibular nerve (V3) passes through as it courses away from the brain.
middle conchae Part of the ethmoid bone and functionally important because their curved surface causes turbulence as air moves into the nasal cavity.
middle fossa Contains the temporal lobe of the brain and the sphenoid (greater wings) and temporal bones.
nasal bones These two small bones are considered facial bones. They form the bridge of the nose. They articulate with the maxillary bones laterally, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone posteriorly, and the frontal bone superiorly.
nasal septum Primarily made up of two bones and a septal cartilage. The superior bone is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. The inferior bone is the vomer. The septal cartilage is hyaline cartilage and it projects anteriorly.
nuchal lines This is where many muscles and ligaments of the neck and back attach to the skull. There is a superior, inferior, and median one of these.
occipital bone This is a single bone of the cranium. Its found on the posterior side of the skull and articulates via the lambdoidal suture with the parietal bones. It also articulates with the sphenoid bone, temporal bones, and the atlas.
occipital condyles These articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas (C1). It functions as a hinge joint allowing flexion and extension of the head. This foramen is important as it transmits the hypoglossal nerve (XII).
olfactory nerve (I) Found in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and is a sensory nerve for smell.
optic canal Houses the optic nerve (II) and is found on the sphenoid bone.
optic nerve (II) Can be found going through the optic canal on the sphenoid bone. It is a sensory nerve for vision.
palatine bones These bones are L-shaped facial bones that form the posterior floor of the nasal cavity and posterior portion of the hard palate.
palatine process of the maxilla The portion of the maxillary bone that forms part of the hard palate.
parietal bone(s) These two bones are cranial bones. They articulate anteriorly with the frontal bone at the coronal suture, posterior with the occipital bone at the lambdoidal suture, and inferiorly with the temporal bone at the squamosal suture.
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone The superior portion of the bony nasal septum, which separates the left and right nasal cavities. It extends inferiorly in the median sagittal plane from the rest of the ethmoid bone.
petrous ridge This is the border between the middle fossa and posterior fossa of the cranium. The sharp portion of the ridge is a point of attachment for a membrane that stabilizes the brain.
posterior fossa Contains the cerebellum, pons, & medulla of the brain and the temporal and occipital bones.
pterygoid process There is a medial and lateral plate for this process. They project inferiorly from the greater wing. The medial process of the sphenoid bone articulate with the perpendicular plates of the palatine bones anteriorly.
ramus (rami) This landmark of the mandible is a posterior processes that meets the body at the mandibular angle. The coronoid and condyloid processes project superiorly from the superior edge of this, with the mandibular (sigmoid) notch between them.
sagittal suture This suture is found between the two parietal bones. It is an example of a synostosis.
sella turcica It is part of the sphenoid bone and is of importance because this is where the pituitary gland (hypophysis) is found. It is part of the middle fossa of the cranium. A sheet of dura mater attaches to the posterior margin of this landmark.
sphenoid bone This single bone is considered a cranial bone. It articulates with every other cranial bone. It also articulates with the zygomatic, vomer, maxillary, and palatine bones. The greater wing and lesser wing are landmarks of this bone.
squamosal suture Most of this suture is found between the temporal bone and the parietal bone on each side of the skull. It is an example of a synostosis. This structure starts as a fontanel in the fetus. Technically these are fibrous joints or ligamentous unions.
Stapes One of the three auditory ossicles. In nursery school we called it the stirrup. The base of the stapes contacts the oval window, a hole in the medial wall of the middle ear.
styloid process Part of the temporal bone and is anteromedial to the mastoid process. As is the case with many processes, it forms where muscles attach to the bone.
stylomastoid foramen Surrounds the facial nerve (VII) as it passes away from the cranium toward the face. This is the second of the two foramina it passes through. The order of foramina that it passes through is internal auditory meatus and stylomastoid foramen.
superior conchae Part of the ethmoid bone, one on the lateral wall of each nasal cavity. As with the inferior conchae, they are functionally important because their curved surface causes turbulence as air moves into the nasal cavity.
superior orbital fissure Provides passage for the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), ophthalmic (V1), and abducens (VI) from the cranium to the orbit. This fissure separates the lesser wing of the sphenoid from the greater wing of the sphenoid.
supraorbital foramen (notch) Passageway for the ophthalmic nerve (V1) as it moves onto the face. This is the second of the two foramina it passes through. The order of foramina that it passes through is superior orbital fissure and supraorbital foramen.
Sutures Start as fontanels in the fetus & are technically fibrous joints or ligamentous unions. Their flexibility is important during birth for easier passage through the birth canal and growth after the delivery. The fontanels are mostly closed by age 1.
temporal bone(s) Bones of the cranium. They are inferior to the parietal bone and articulate with the parietal bone at the squamosal suture. Anteriorly it articulates with the zygomatic, posteriorly with the occipital bone, and inferiorly with the mandible.
temporal process An example of a structure that is named for the bone it articulates with rather than the bone it is part of. Forms the anterior portion of the zygomatic arch and projects posteriorly to where it articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
Vomer A single bone of the face. It Is of functional importance because it forms the inferior portion of the nasal septum. It starts as a large portion of that septum posteriorly and then narrows to a point at is anterior end.
zygomatic arch Made up of two processes from two bones, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone posteriorly and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone anteriorly.
zygomatic bone Facial bones. They articulate posteromedially with the sphenoid bone, posterolaterally with the temporal bone, superiorly with the frontal bone and anteriorly with the maxillary bones. This bone is a portion of the bony orbit of the eye.
zygomatic process Named for the bone it articulates with rather than the bone it is part of. Forms the posterior portion of the zygomatic arch and projects anteriorly to where it articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.
Created by: kboyer