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FinalReview02

HaneyGenPathREV02

QuestionAnswer
What is a genotype? Genes you inherited from your parents, not physical appearance
what is a phenotype? revealed in your appearance
what is amniocenteses? surgical puncture of the amniotic sac
what is an arthrogram? visualization of a joint
what is an audiogram? a record made of the threshold of hearing
what is a bronchoscopy? visualization of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
A hiatial hernia is.. the protrusion of some portion of the stomach into the thoracic cavity.
the most common type of hiatal hernia is the.. sliding hernia
cirrhosis is a degenerative deisease of the liver
define differentiation the process cells take functions and forms different from the forms of the cells they originated from
What is pneumonia? an acute inflammation of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli of the lung.
what is aspiration pneumonia? irritation from large quantities of foreign matter.
what are some signs and symptoms of pneumonia? coughing, sputum productions, pleuritic chest pain, shaking chills, fever, rales, dyspnea, cyanosis, and generalized weakness
what is a closed fracture? no external wound.
what is an open or compound fracture? accompanied by an open wound
what is a greenstick fracture? the bone is partially bent or split
what is a comminuted fracture? the bone is splintered.
what is an impacted fracture? one end is forced into another bone.
an incomplete fracture is also known as what? stress fracture
biotherapy is also known as what? immunotherapy
what is used in biotherapy? a combination of chemotherapy and radiation
define acute. rapid onset, severe symptoms, short course
infective tubulointerstitial nephritis is also called.. pyelonephritis
what is pyelonephritis? inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis due to infection
what is diabetes insipidus? decreased vasopressin (vasopressin helps regulate the amount of fluid the kidneys release as urine)
what is the most common symptom of diabetes insipidus? polyuria
what is diabetes mellitus? chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism resulting from insufficient production of insulin
what is insulin produced by? beta cells called islets of Langerhans
immune-mediated diabetes type 1 usually appears before what age? it normally has an abrupt onset usually before age 30
type 2 diabetes is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
gestational diabetes mellitus is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy but most often resolves after delivery.
what does gestational diabetes mellitus do to the mother? puts the women at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
what is a monogenic (mendelian) disorder? caused by a mutation in a single gene.
what are some autosomal recessive disorders? cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, Cretinism, Phenylketonuria, Sickle cell anemia
What are some autosomal Dominant disorders? diabetes insipidus, retinoblastoma
What are some sex linked disorders? hemophilia, Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy
What are Chromosomal Disorders caused by? an abnormality in the number of chromosomes or by changes in chromosomal structure
Name some diseases caused by chromosomal alterations. Klinefelter's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, Trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome)
what is another category of hereditary diseases that is made up of disorders with many factors? multifactorial disorders
What is cystic fibrosis? a congenital disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by the production of copious amounts of abnormally thick mucus
what are some common signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis? increases concentrations of salt in sweat, wheeze respirations, dry cough, dysnpnea, tachypnea, intestinal obstruction, vomiting, constipation, electrolyte imbalance, inability to absorb fats
what is the prognosis of cystic fibrosis? poor, the average life expectancy is 28 years of age.
Hemophilia is caused by what? deficiency of specific types of serum proteins called 'clotting factors'. it is a bleeding disorder
Name a few Environmental hazards. air, noise, insects, exposure to venoms, pesticides, pollutant
What is glomerulonephritis? allergic inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney's nephrons
what causes glomerulonephritis? circulating antigen-antibody complexes that become trapped within the network of capillaries of a glomerulus.
what is a wheal? generally round, transient elevation of the skin which is white in the center, with pale red edges, often accompanied by itching.
Alzheimer's disease is.. a type of chronic organic brain syndrome characterized by the neath of neurons in the cerebral cortex and their replacement by microscopic 'plaques'
what is a benign tumor? one that grows slowly and whose cells closely resemble normal cells of the tissue it originated from
what is a malignant tumor? invasive, grows rapidly, anaplastic, and has the capability of metastasizing through the blood or lymph
define chorea. nervous condition marked by involuntary muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles
define encapsulated. enclosure in a layer of tissue not normal to the part
what is another term for cryptochidism? undescended testes
what is a migraine headache? recurrent, frequently incapacitating type of headache characterized by intense, throbbing pain
define anaphylaxis. an allergic reaction of the body to a foreign or other substance
define incontinence. the inability to control the passage of urine, semen, or feces due to one or more physiological or psychological conditions.
What is cushing's syndrome? hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex of the adrenal glands.
what are some symptoms of cushing's syndrome? moon-shaped face, acne, head and trunk grossly exaggerated, thin arms and legs, impaired glucose tolerance, muscle weakness, stretch marks, buffalo hump, peptic ulcer, emotional changes, hypertension, increases susceptibility to infection
for a person to be labeled as 'obese' their body weight has to be __-__ % above the ideal. 10-20%
what is a carcinoma? solid tumors of epithelial tissue of external and internal body surfaces.
what is a sarcoma? arise from supportive and connective tissue such as bone, fat, muscle, and cartliage.
Neoplasms of blood and lymph include.. leukemias, hodgkin's disease, and non-hodgkin's lymphoma
leukemias are different than the other groups because they do not form solid tumors.
what is an adenocarcinoma? malignant tumor of a gland
acute bacterial meningitis is.. inflammation of the three-layer membrane called the meninges that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
what are common signs and symptoms of bacterial meningitis? sudden onset of severe headache, vomiting, seizures, nuchal rigity, dowsiness, stupor, or even coma
what is a gastric ulcer? lesion in the musocal lining of the stomach.
what is diphtheria? acute, life-threatening infectious disease.
what is diphtheria characterized by? membranelike coating that forms over mucous membrane surfaces.
Diphtheria is caused by which bacterium? Cornebacteriumdiphtheriae
what is hyperopia? light entering the eye comes into focus behind the retina. farsightedness
what is presbyopia? loss of elasiticity in the crystalline lens of the eye. farsightedness
what is myopia? light entering the eye comes into focus in front of the retina. nearsightedness
what is an astigmatism? light entering the eye is focused unevenly or diffusely across the retina so some is focused and some is not.
what is mumps? acute, contagious disease characterized by fever and inflammation of the parotid salivary glands.
the incubation period of mumps is __ days. 18
define urticaria. vascualr reaction of the skin characterized by temporary eruption of wheals/hives
what is an accumulation of fluid within the structure of the middle ear? otitis media
What is a fluorescein stain? a dye used to reveal corneal lesions and to test circulation in the retinals and extremities.
What is a fluoroscopy? examination of deep structures using x-rays.
what is a gastroscopy? inspection of the stomach interior using a gastroscope.
What is a hematocrit used to measure? the percentage of packed red cells in a whole blood sample obtained by finger stick.
What tests hydroxyproline? a 24-hour urine catch or a blood sample.
Define bile. a thick alkaline fluid produced by the liver.
what is apnea? temporary cessation in breathing.
what is ascites? abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
what is cellulits? an inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.
define coma. a state of profound unconsciousness
what is a newarly lyquid mixture composes of partially digested food and gastric secretions? chyme
what is karatin? hard, fibrous protein that is the primary constituent of hair and nails.
what is heterozygous? possessing different genes from each parent for a particual trait.
define gene. one of the units of heredity, located at a definite position on a particular chromosome.
what is hypoxia? insufficient oxygenation of the blood or tissue.
what is the menarche? the initial menstrual cycle.
what is lysis? destruction of red blood cells, bacteria, and other stuctures by a specific lysin.
warts are caused by which virus? human papilloma virus
the formation of numerous small growths or masses on a muscous membrane is called what? polyposis
what is pyuria? puss in the urine
what is rhinitis? inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes.
what is plasma? liquid part of the lymph and the blood.
what is a synapse? narrow gap between two neurons in a neural pathway.
Created by: betsy6075