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A&P 1 - Final Review

Chapters 6, 7, 10, 11

smallest and most numerous structural unit cells
study of cells cytology
surrounds and protects the cell cell membrane
control center of the cell nucleous
material outside the nucleous cytoplasm
prime source of energy for the cell mitochondria
groups of cells form tissues
groups of tissues form organs
groups of organs form systems
four types of tissue found in the body epithial;connective;muscle;nervous
study of tissues hystology
covers internal and external organs epithealial tissue ; intestines
supports and connects tissues, organs and other body parts connective tissue; cartilage
flex and contracts, includes smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue
relays information throughout the body nervous tissue
12 body systems muscular; endocrine; lymphatic; integumentary;nervous; skeletal; cardiac; reproductive; urinary; digestive; special senses
body erect, eyes forward and palms facing outward is referred to as anatomical position
vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions frontal/coronal plane
horizontal cross section dividing the body into superior and inferior portions transverse/horizontal plane
vertical pland that divides the body into left and right portions midsaggital plane
cavity that contains lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus and trachea thoracic cavity
cavity that contains liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines and kidneys abdominal cavity
cavity that contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs pelvic cavity
cavity that contains the brain cranial cavity
cavity that contains the nerves of the spinal cord spinal cavity
the abdomen in divided into these RUQ;LUQ;RLQ;LLQ
vertebrae of the neck cervical; C1-C7
vertebrae of the chest thoracic; T1-T12
vertebrae of the lower back lumbar; L1-L5
five bones fused together, found after the lumbar region sacral
4 bones fused together, also known as the tailbone coccyx
toward the front of the body anterior
the back of the body posterior
towards the head superior/cranial
towards the feet inferior/caudal
midline of the body median
away from the midline of the body, on the side lateral
close to the origin of the body part or near the point of attachment proximal
farther from the origin of the body or away from the point of attachment distal
at the body surface superficial
pertaining to palm of the hand palmar
pertaining to the sole of the foot plantar
moving away from midline abduction
moving toward midline adduction
pertaining to the outer wall of the body parietal
pertaining to the internal organs or viscera visceral
turning a body part inward inversion
turning a body part outward eversion
lying flat on the back, legs straight, arms at side supine
lying face down on the abdomen, legs straight, arms at side prone
region of the abdomen located between the hypochondriac region in the upper section of the abdomen epigastric region
region of the abdomen located in the center between the lumbar regions umbilical region
region of the abdomen located in the lower portion of the abdomen between the inguinal regions hypogastric region
human skeleton consists of how many bones? 206
doctor who specializes is diseases and disorders of the bones and muscles orthopedist
main shaft like portion of the long bone diaphysis
located at the end of a long bone epiphysis
layer of cartilage that allows bone to grow length wise epiphyseal line
fibrous membrane that covers the long bone periosteum
covers joint surfaces articular cartilage
contain yellow marrow medullary cavity
also called cancellous bone spongy bone
site for blood cell production red bone marrow
stores fat yellow bone marrow
actively produce bone tissue osteoblasts
digest bone tissue to make them hollow osteoclasts
mature bone cells osteocytes
process of bone formation ossification
groove or depression in a bone sulcus; fissure
opening or hollow space in a bone sinus
hollow or shallow concave depression in a bone fossa
hole within a bone for blood vessels or nerves to pass through foramen
bony skull cranium
frontal bone that forms the forehead frontal bone
behind the frontal bone, 2 bones that form the top and upper sides of the cranium parietal bones
forms the back of the head and base of the skull occipital bone
two bones that form the lower sides and part of the base of the skull temporal bones
the space between the bones in an infants skull that is covered by a tough membrane fontanelle
lower jaw bone mandibular
upper jaw bone maxillary
cheek bones zygomatic
bones of the neck cervical vertebrae; C1-C7
back bones of the chest thoracic vertebrae; T1-T12
bones of the lower back lumbar vertebrae; L1-L5
fourth section of the vertebrae, composed of 5 fused bones sacrum
fifth segment of the vertebrae, composed of 4 fused bones coccyx; tailbone
also known as the breastbone sternum
collarbone clavicle
first seven ribs are known as true ribs
ribs 8-10 are known as false ribs
ribs 11 and 12 are known as floating ribs
shoulder blade scapula
bone of the upper arm humerous
lower arm bone that is located on the thumb side radius
lower arm bone that is located on the pinky side ulna
bones of the wrist carpals
bones of the hand metacarpals
bones of the fingers phalanges
largest of the hip bones ilium
upper curved edge of the ilium iliac crest
lowest part of the hip bones ischium
anterior part of the hip bones pubis
longest, heaviest and strongest bone in the body, thigh bone femur
knee cap patella
larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones; shin bone tibia
more slender of the lower leg bones fibula
bones of the ankle tarsals
bones of the foot metatarsals
bones of the toes phalanges
bones that are fragile due to loss of bone density osteoporosis
bacterial infection in the bone and bone marrow osteomylitis
narrowing of the vertebral canal resulting in pressure on nerve roots spinal stenosis
abnormal outward curvature of the upper spine kyphosis
abnormal inward curvature of the spine lordosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine scoliosis
break in the bone but no open wound in the skin closed or simple fracture
break in the bone with an open wound where the bone is protruding open or compound fracture
incomplete fracture greenstick fracture
bones surfaces that break due to being forced against each other compression fracture
minor fracture in the bone hairline or stress fracture
aligning the broken bone through manipulation without making an incision in the skin closed reduction
realigning broken bones during surgery, usually requiring pins, screws, or plates open reduction
injection of a radioisotope that is absorbed by bone tissue; used to diagnosis bone cancer bone scan
obtaining a sample of bone marrow to aid in the diagnosis of leukemia bone marrow aspiration
voluntary muscles that attach to the bones of the skeleton skeletal
involuntary muscle that lines hollow organs smooth;visceral
specialized muscle forming the walls of the heart cardiac
attaches muscles to bones tendons
sheets of fibrous connective tissue covering muscle fascia
muscle located in the fleshy part of the cheek buccinator
triangular shaped muscle extending across the back of the shoulder trapezius
muscle that extends from the sternum to the side of the neck sternomastoid
muscle that originates from the lower back and covers lower half of thoracic region latissimus dorsi
large muscle that crosses over the front of the chest pectoralis major
muscle that covers the shoulder joint deltoid
muscle of the upper arm that allows the arm to flex biceps brachii
muscle of the back of the upper arm that allows the arm to extend triceps brachii
forms most of the fleshy part of the buttocks gluteus maximus
located above the gluteus maximus gluteus medius
muscles of the anterior part of the thigh quadriceps femoris
muscles of the posterior of the thigh hamstrings
muscle of the calf gastronemius
muscle of the front of the lower leg tibialis anterior
disease characterized by progressive weakness and muscle degeneration muscular dystrophy
process of recording the strength of muscle contraction through electrical stimulation electromyography
type of joint that connects bones together and is immoveable fibrous; ie; skull
joint that connects bones together with cartilage cartilaginous; ie symphasis pubis
joint that is lined with a membrane and secretes a fluid synovial; ie; shoulder
joint that allows back and forth type movement hinge; ie; elbow
allows movement in many directions around a central point ball and socket; ie; hip
bending motion flexion
straightening motion extension
movement away from the midline of the body abduction
movement towards the midline of the body adduction
turning the palm up or forward supination
turning the palm down or backward pronation
bending the foot upward dorsiflexion
bending the foot downward, pointing the toes plantar flexion
turning of a bone on its own axis rotation
movement of an extremity in a circular motion circumduction
inflammation of the joints arthritis
arthritis that affects the spinal column ankylosing spondylitis
abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe bunion
displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint dislocation
cystic tumor on a tendon ganglion
arthritis caused by excess uric acid gout
rupture of the central portion of the vertebral disc herniated disc
most common form of arthritis resulting from wear and tear on the joints osteoarthritis
type of chronic arthritis that results is deformity of the affected joints rheumatoid arthritis
surgical repair of a joint arthroplasty
visualization of a joint with the use of a scope arthroscopy
puncture of a joint with a needle to remove fluid arthrocentisis
wasting away of a muscle atrophy
abnormally slow movement bradykinesia
painful inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow epicondylitis
chronic condition causing widespread muscle pain fibromyalgia
paralysis on one half of the body hemipeligia
paralysis of the lower extremities paraplegia
paralysis of all four extremities quadraplegia
herniation of muscle through the fascia myocele
without muscular coordination ataxia
thin double walled sac that encloses the heart pericardium
the outer covering of the pericardium parietal pericardium
inner layer of the pericardium visceral pericardium; epicardium
the space between the parietal and visceral pericardium pericardial sac
the outer layer of the heart epicardium
middle muscular layer of the heart myocardium
the inner layer of the heart endocardium
heart is divided into how many chambers four
two upper chambers are known as right and left atria
two lower chambers are known as right and left ventricles
the wall between the right and left side of the heart septum
deoxygenated blood enters into the right atrium from the inferior and superior vena cava
from the right artrium bloods goes to the right ventricle
from the right ventricle blood goes to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries
blood returns from the lungs into the left atrium via the pulmonary veins
from the left atrium blood goes to the left ventricle
from the left ventricle bloods goes to the body via the aorta
the valve between the right atrium and ventricle tricuspid valve
valve between the left atrium and ventricle bicuspid valve; mitral
valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery pulmonary valve
valve between the left ventricle and aorta aortic valve
arteries that supply the heart muscle coronary arteries
the pacemaker of the heart is known as sinoatrial node
the node at the base of the atrium atrioventricular node
vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart arteries
vessels that carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart veins
between the blood and cells capillaries
heart contracts, exerting the greatest pressure on the walls of the arteries systole
heart relaxes, refilling before next contraction diastole
normal adult heart rate 60-100bpm
heart rate consistently below 60 bradycardia
heart rate consistently above 100 tachycardia
intermittent chest pain caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart angina pectoris
disease of the heart muscle cardiomyopathy
condition that is characterized by back up of fluid in the heart and lungs congestive heart failure
narrowing of the coronary arteries that prevent blood supply to the heart coronary artery disease
inflammation of the membrane lining of the heart chambers endocarditis
drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve mitral valve prolapse
heart attack myocardial infarction
inflammation of the myocardium caused by virus or bacteria myocarditis
inflammatory disease that may occur due to untreated strep infection rheumatic fever
hardening of the arteries arteriosclerosis
weakening in the wall of an arteries aneurysm
high blood pressure hypertension
inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus thrombophlebitis
enlarged superficial veins that are twisted, dilated with incompetent valves varicose veins
abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and aorta patent ductus arteriosus
congenital anomaly that consists of four defects tetralogy of fallot
this results in ineffective contractions of the ventricles resulting in a patient with no heart beat, no pulse, no circulation ventricular fibrillation
a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is threaded through a major artery to observe the circulation of the heart cardiac catheterization
diagnostic procedure using ultrasound to evaluate the structure of the heart echocardiogram
a graph recording of the electrical action of the heart electrocardiogram; EKG
small portable monitoring device that records an EKG during normal daily activities holter monitor
blood tests that may indicate damage to the myocardium cardiac enzymes and troponin
localized or general condition of swelling due to excess tissue fluid edema
difficulty breathing dyspnea
condition of blueness of the skin cyanosis
enlarged heart megalocardia
inflammation of a vein phlebitis
pounding or racing of the heart palpitation
formation of a blood clot thrombosis
urination at night nocturia
decreased oxygen supply to body part or organ ischemia
enlargement of the liver hepatomegaly
one who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders of the heart cardiologist
cramplike pain in the calves due to poor circulation claudication
nonsurgical procedure in which a ballon is inserted into a blocked artery and is inflated to enlarge the opening coronary angioplasty
occluded coronary artery coronary bypass surgery
oxygen inhaled into the lungs and carbon dioxide exhaled external respiration
inhaled oxygen circulates through the lungs and body internal respiration
hollow areas within the skull cavity that connect with the nose paranasal sinuses
airway that connects the mouth and nose with the larynx, also known as the throat pharynx
connects the pharynx with the trachea, also known as the voice box larynx
connects to the bronchi in the chest, also known as the windpipe trachea
two tubes that branch off the trachea to each lung bronchi
smallest branches of the bronchi bronchioles
air sacs at the end of bronchioles that allow for gas exchange aveoli
double lined membrane that lines the lungs pleura
space between the pleural membranes pleural cavity
small flap of cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from going into the trachea epiglottis
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity; aids with respiration diaphragm
diaphragm contracts and chest cavity enlarges air is drawn into the lungs inspiration;inhalation
diaphragm relaxes and air if forced out of the lungs expiration;exhalation
process of listening to sounds within the body using a stethoscope auscultation
without breathing apnea
abnormally slow breathing bradypnea
blueish discoloration of the skin cyanosis
difficulty breathing dyspnea
nosebleed epistaxis
act of spitting out saliva or mucous expectoration
coughing up blood hemoptysis
insufficient oxygen in the blood hypoxemia
decreased oxygen hypoxia
patient breathes more comfortably while sitting or standing orthopnea
friction rub that is able to be heard due to inflammation of the pleural cavity pleural rub
watery discharge from the nose rhinorrhea
harsh high pitched sound usually heard with the croup stridor
rapid breathing tachypnea
viral childhood disease of the upper airway croup
inflammation of the larynx laryngitis
whooping cough pertussis
inflammation of the pharynx; sorethroat pharyngitis
inflammation of the sinus sinusitis
difficulty breathing caused by swelling of the bronchial tubes asthma
chronic pulmonary disease that results in damage to the alveoli resulting in decreased elasticity of the lungs emphysema
flu influenza
accumulation of fluid in the pleural space pleural effusion
inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura pleurisy
inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria or virus pneumonia
collection of air in the pleural cavity resulting in a collapsed lung pneumothorax
abnormal collection of fluid in the lungs; most commonly caused by congestive heart failure pulmonary edema
obstruction of a pulmonary artery due to a thrombus pulmonary embolism
examination of the bronchi using a lighted scope bronchoscopy
test done to measure patients breathing capacity pulmonary function test
needle inserted into the pleural space to collect fluid for testing thoracentesis
surgical removal of the palatine tonsils tonsillectomy
disease characterized by chronic bronchitis and emphysema COPD; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Created by: clarevoyant1019