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NAU A&P, 3&4

NAU Cells, Cellular Metabolism

Termed the name of the cell in 1665 Robert Lewin Hooke
Study of cells Cytology
Also known as the building blocks of life Cells
All cells come from this type of cell Generalized or Stem Cells
Control center of the cell containing the necleolus, which contains the cells genetic material Nucleus
Located in the nucleus, made up of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Located most entirely in the cytoplasm, consists of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil, also contains, rRNA, mRNA, tRNA. Ribonucleic Acid
Surrounding membrane, has nuclear pores, so communication is easy within the cell. Ex: Yelling at your children through the window or door of a house Nuclear Envelope
The sites within the nucleus where ribosomes are assembled, consisting largely of RNA and protein Nucleoli
Loose strands of DNA wrapped around protein clusters as the cell divides the cords condense Chromatin
Protein clusters Histones
Paired, barrel-shaped structures, responsible for cell division a metabolic function and forms the mitotic spindle near the nucleus Centrioles
Composed of phospholipid bilayer. Plasma Membrane
Consists of a phosphate head which is hydrophyllic and a lipid hydrophobic tail Phospholipid Bilayer
Holds the structure of the molecule and keeps it stationary. Ex: toothpick in a sandwich Cholesterol Molecules
Receives and transmits messages into the cell, determines who gets in and out of the cell Receptor proteins
Forms specialized doorways for specific molecules. Ex: Bouncer at a bar Integral proteins
This allows cells to stick together. Also allows small molecules to move between the cytoplasm and adjacent cells Desmosomes or Gap Junction
Structure within a cell that carry a specific activity for the cell to function. Organelle
Powerhouse of the cell that convert nutrients into ATP- adenine triphosphate Mitochondria
Manufactures protein, very tiny and attached to the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes
Has ribosomes, produces integral proteins and phospholipid molecules Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
Metabolizes fats and stores Calcium ions. Also detoxifies steroids and lipid-soluble medications Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
Packaging plant of the cell, sorting and sending proteins to their specific destinations. Ex: Post Office Golgi apparatus
Contains digestive enzymes that function as the cell's demolition crew to unwanted substances. If needed will blow themselves and the cell up. Lysosomes
Disarms free radicals, then turns them into hydrogen and peroxide Peroxisomes
Non-permanent structures, not present in all cells that provide storage for: pigments, crystals and food in the form of either glycogen or lipids Inclusions
Cilia and Flagellum Surface Organelles
Long flowing tubes that move bacteria out of the lungs Cilia
Hollow tubes on the surface of the intestines that absorb nutrients Microvilli
Used to move the cell around Flagellum
Requires ATP Energy Bulk Transport
Moving substances against the concentration gradient, (going uphill) and is selectively permeable, ( kool-aid from packet to a pitcher of water Active transport
Means into the cell. Taken in by the membrane, surrounded and pinched off and moved to where it will be digested Endocytosis
Cell eating, Ex: Pacman Phagocytosis
Cell Drinking, Ex: drinking a pina colada Pinocytosis
Needs a specific doorway, needs to be invited into the cell. Na ion received Na ion Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Means out of the cell. Enclosed by the membrane in a vesicle and transported out of the cell thus rupturing outside the cell(secretion) Exocytosis
Moves substances from higher concentrations to lower concentrations. Ex: air fresheners Diffusion
Movement of water or fluid to an area of higher to lower concentration Osmosis
Cells shrinking and in worst cases die off Dehydration
Moves higher to lower concentration. Ex: Moving out of an airplane Filtration
Moves from higher to lower concentration with the aid of a transporter. Ex: leaving out of an airport with a personal assistant Facilitated diffusion
This is done for cell growth, repair and reproduction Cell Division
Forms sex cells, eggs and sperm Meiosis
Forms somatic cells, that can become any kinds of cell (liver, blood, etc) AKA stem cells Mitosis
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase 5 Phases of Cell Division
Period when the cell is carrying on normal metabolic functions and DNA duplicates Interphase
Duplicated DNA condenses and the coil tightens (chromosomes), nucleus disappears, centrioles form the mitotic spindle Prophase
Lining up of the chromosomes along the middle of the spindle Metaphase
Separation of the duplicated chromosomes and migration to opposite ends of the cells Anaphase
Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane reforms in each end of the cell and the cell begins to divide. Telophase
Building, inputting energy Anabolism
Breakdown, releasing energy Catabolism
Without oxygen occurs in cytoplasm Anaerobic Respiration
With oxygen, occurs in the mitochondria Aerobic Respiration
Specific amino acids, building blocks Nucleotides
DNA instructs how different proteins are to be constructed Gene
A complete set of genetic instructions, the master blueprint in a cell Geonome
Transfer RNA, Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA Three types of RNA
tRNA Transfer RNA
mRNA Messenger RNA
rRNA Ribosomal RNA
Resembles half of a DNA molecule mRNA and tRNA
Helps form the ribosomes where the proteins are built rRNA
The DNA molecule unwinds and information from DNAis transferred to mRNA Transcription
Information coming from the DNA Triplet
Corresponding copy on mRNA Codon
The change from a nitrogen based language of mRNA to the amino acid language of a synthesized protein Translation
Changes in the genetic information due to damage or alteration of the codes Mutation
Catabolism glucose oxygen yields Two pyruvic acid molecules
A repeating cycle of aerobic reactions that break down pyruvic acids prodcued by glycolysis, producing 2 ATPs, several CO2 molecules and several very energetic hydrogen carrying molecules Kreb Cycle
Catabolism of glucose into pyruvic acid and yields 2 ATP Glycolysis
As a result, the process yields 34-36 ATP Elecron transport chain/ Oxidative Phosphorylation
The recapturing of almost half of the energy released during catabolism Oxidation
C6H1206 + 6O2 yields 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 34-36 ATP Glucose as fuel equation
Created by: FKrouse