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AICP 2016 Prep Set 5

American Institute of Certified Planners Exam - May 2016

Characteristics of a Megaregion Part of a core-based stat area Pop density exceeds 200 people per sq. mile Pop growth rate exp to be >15% or 1,000 people by 2025 Pop density exp to increase more than 50% btwn 2000-2025 Em grow rate >15% or total jobs 20K by 2025
Tri-State Water Wars For more than 2 decades, GA, AL, and FL have been in disputes concerning the use of 2 shared river basins—the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) & the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT). used to meet multiple needs, including drinking h2o, power gen, ag
Business Improvement District (BID) org formed by private prop owners & businesses w/in a city district - members pay spec tax to cover the expense of prov their BID w/ services beyond local gov - may work w/ gov - aka spec assess or bus. imp zone EX: San Leandro downtown (security)
Greyfields aka Dead Malls - failing malls or retail prop that require sig. public and private infrastructure improvements - ripe for major redevelopment
Heat Island Effect Built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas - annual mean air temp in a city w/ 1 mil can be 1.8-5.4 deg warmer than surroundings - affects comm in summer: energy demand, air cond costs, pollution & GHG, heat illness, h2o quality
Tactical or Pop Up Urbanism Temporary retail stores set up on vacant or underdeveloped properties EX: food trucks and farmers markets
Corridor Planning Most typically refers to roadways but can also apply to waterways & greenways - can happen @ multi-national, multi-state, state or local level
Corridor Transportation Planning Typically @ regional level - allows the regions gov agencies to coordinate in maj transp. planning proj - ID's long-range trasnp needs along corridor, evals alts & implements strategies addressing needs - most often by MPOs
National Corridor Planning & Development Program Part of MAP-21 - funded grant program - provides funds for planning, proj dev, const & operation of proj in border regions near Mex & Can - funds corr planning & multi-state coord
Scenic Corridor Planning Can be federal (Nat Scenic Byways Prog) or State (Miss. Scenic Byway Program)
National Scenic Byway Program 1992 - purpose is to designate and fund enhancements of scenic hwys across the US - roadways eligible must have archeol, cult, natural, historic, rec and/or scenic qualities - req. dev of a Corridor Management Plan
Greenways & Greenbelts can be trails, landscape corridors adjacent to roads or rivers, or areas of land set aside for the purpose of open space or rec - provide a link for urban residents with nature - Greenbelt Alliance has est 21 urban growth boundaries in the Bay Area
Blueways & Blue/Greenway Planning Often created at Regional level - blueways can follow rivers, streams, waterways - planning aims to achieve goals: prot nat resources, prov alt transportation opt, connect neigh with nature, promote healthy comm, create econ dev opportunities
National Heritage Areas Places where natural, cultural and historic resources combine to form a cohesive nationally important landscape - designated by Congress - some are also Nat Her Corridors - 49 in US EX Blue Ridge Mtns NC
Tourism Corridor Planning Refers to efforts to link social, cultural & economic drivers between communities for the purposes of supporting tourism EX: working group on Hwy 80
What is the most important contribution of the City Beautiful Movement? It established City Planning as a permanent part of local government
Federal Housing Authority (FHA) est 1934 - provided low-interest mortgages - funded the development of public housing - insured mortgages
Forest Hills Garden, NY (Long Island) 1910 - The first American test of the neighborhood unit concept - Olmsteads firm provided the park - Cord Meyer prop owner
Garden City Philosophy Howard - 1898 - The public should take a stand on urban development - Garden cities rep the birth of the concept of the new town movement - were to be constructed surr by greenbelts of public held land perm committed to ag, precluding urban expansion
Country Club Plaza 1922 - Kansas City - First suburban, auto-oriented shopping center
Patrick Geddes Father of Regional Planning - wrote Cities in Evolution (1915) - created the foundation for regional planning theory in America
Riverside, Illinois 1868 Exemplifies early American suburbanization - 1860-70s - small settlements popping up outside of larger cities - Nat. Hist. Landmark - Designed by Vaux & Olmstead - stressed rural instead of urban amenities
Saul Alinsky Facts Criminologist in Illinois - Comm Org in Chicago slums - founded the "Back of the Yards" advocacy foundation - 1971 Rules of Radicals - Univ of Chicago, Archeology
Basic Features of Radburn, NJ Stein & Wright - Orig concept called for town of 30K w/ commerce, ind, schools & rec - a variety of bldg types, ped env, super blocks, bypass traffic - only 866 homes comp (1/2 SF, 1/2 duplex) 10/acre - 1929 - cul-de-sacs - 149 acres total
Tennessee Valley Authority Facts Auth office located in TN - Founded in 1933 - multi-state org - concerned with redev of the TN River Valley - prog range from floor prot, water management, rec dev and power generation
Reasons for Post WWII Suburbanization Avail of state & fed funds for hwy const. - FHA & VA housing programs - disp of manufacturing plants from the core of cities - widespread car ownership & subsidized dev of over the road trucking fleets
1840 in the US First tenements occupied in NYC - first massive wave of European immigration - only 3 american cities had populations of more than 100,000
Hadacheck v. Sebastian 1912 - Los Angeles - Court 1st approved the regulation of the location of land uses (manufacturing bricks) - one of the first takings cases - declared the const of muni control of the horizontal location of bldgs on private prop via setback legislation
So. Burlington Co. NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel (Mount Laurel II) 1983 - Court determined that Mt Laurel had exclusionary zoning that prohibited non-SF units (inc mobile home) - req. town to open its arms to all income levels - reg. do not prevent a county from meeting their fair share of housing needs
Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff 1984 - court held that a state could use eminent domain process to take land overwhelmingly concentrated in the hands of private landowners and redistribute it to the wider population of private residents - 22 owners owned 72% of Oahu, skewed the market
Neighborhood Planning Intro by Park & Burgess 1915 - sub-city plann level - plan topics vary (crime prev, hist pres) - cater to the needs of residents - public part is critical - Bernie Jones 1990 book on Neighborhood Planning (mixed-uses make good neigh) - can be formal (gov)
Waterfront Planning Clean Water Act served to restore waterways & orient dev towards the water - 1990s big push - some sites need heavy env mitigation - hazard mit (flood, climate change) provisions - imp to think of loc of utilities (siting rec near sewage outage areas)
Historic Districts Group of buildings, prop or sites that have been designated at the local, state or national level - vary in size - 1st district is in Charleston, SC
National Register Created in 1966 - allows prop to reg for tax incentives EX: George Washington's House
State and Local Historic Districts National Historic Pres Ave of 1966 requires that states have a State Hist Pres Office - many local jurisdictions have programs also
Downtown Planning Type of Specific Plan - IDs dev goals spec to downtown needs (dev & redev goals)
Dillon's Rule Cities can only do what the State requires
Home Rule Cities make most of the rules for their jurisdiction
Types of State Planning Items Floodplain Regulation, Environmental Protection
County Planning Items Haz Mitigation Plans - Growth Management Plans - Intergovernmental Coordination
Rural Planning Items Access to Infrastructure - Farm Economics - Small Town Character - Social & Health Services
First Historic Preservation Commission 1921 - New Orleans - Vieux Carre Commission
Statewide Plan for Smart Growth? Maryland 1990s - ties state level capital investment to development in specific areas
Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest - "the largest single act of national planning in our history" - completed following Revolutionary War - created sys way to distribute land to the public
Alexander Hamilton 1791 Argues for protective tariffs for the manufacturing industry as a means of promoting ind development in the young republic in the Report on Manufactures
Henry Clay 1818 Proposes a plan to Congress (American System) to allocate fed funds to promote the dev of the national econ by combining tariffs with internal improvements, such as roads, canals & other waterways
Erie Canal Completed in 1825 - connected the northeastern states with the newly settled "west" - facilitated economic development in both regions
National Road 1839 Terminates in Vandalia, IL - began in 1811 in Cumberland, MD - helps to open the Ohio Valley to settlers
First Model Tenement 1855 - Manhattan, NYC
Homestead Act 1862 - Congress auth land grants from the public domain to settlers for a $18 and a guarantee of five years residence - 270 m acres of land settled, 10% of US
Morrill Act 1862 - Proceeds from the sale of land in the Homestead Act were to be used to found colleges offering instruction in ag, eng, and other practical arts - built in the "western" states
1864 NY Campaign by NY Council of Hygiene of the Citizens Association to raise housing and sanitary standards
First Transcontinental Railroad 1869 - Union Pacific & Central Pacific meet at Promontory Point, UT on May 10th
John Wesley Powell Publishes Report on the Lands of the Arid Region in 1878 - includes a proposed regional plan that would foster settlement of the west & conserve scarce water resources
Progress and Poverty 1879 - Henry George - presents an argument for diminishing extremes of national wealth and poverty by means of a single tax (on land) that would capture the unearned increment of national development for public uses
First Dumbbell Tenement 1879 - named after shape - NYC - built commonly in NYC until end of century - notorious for poor living conditions (lack of air, light, space)
Establishment of the US Geological Survey 1879 - Created to survey & classify all public domain lands
Pullman, IL 1880-84 Model industrial town built by George Pullman - workers had everything they needed in one area
Jacob Riis Published How the Other Half Lived in 1890 - stimulated housing & neighborhood reform in NYC - Also wrote Children of the Poor
General Land Law Revision Act 1891 Gave the President power to create forest preserves by proclamation
Sierra Club Founded in 1892 by John Muir, Scottish-American naturalist - founded to promote the protection and preservation of the natural env. - Muir was a leading figure in American environmentalism
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1893 - commemorating 400th anniv of the disc of america - Burnham debuts White City, City Beautiful movement & basis of the urban planning profession - 1st model civic center
United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Co. - 5th Amendment Case 1896 - first sig case concerning historic pres - court ruled that acquisition of the nat battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose - use of trolley & created ROW to Gettysburg from roads, eminent domain for public good
Forest Management Act 1897 Authorized some control by the Sec. of the Interior over the use and occupancy of forest preserves
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform 1898 - Ebenezer Howard - source of the Garden City movement - Reissued in 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow
Gifford Pinchot 1898 becomes Chief Forester of the US in the Dept. of Ag - publicizes the cause of forest conservation - coined term "conservation ethic" - reformed the management and development of forests in US - Gov of Pennsylvania
US Reclamation Act 1902 created funds from sale of public land in the arid states to supply water there through the construction of water storage & irrigation works
Letchworth 1903 - First English Garden City & a stimulus to the New Town movement in the US (Greenbelt towns, Columbia, MD)
Public Lands Commission 1903 - appointed by Teddy Roosevelt - proposes rules for orderly land development and management
Antiquities Act of 1906 First law to institute fed protection for preserving archeological sites - provided for designation of National Monuments, areas already in the pub domain that contained "hist landmarks, hist & prehist structures & obj of hist or scientific interest"
Inland Waterway Commission 1907 - Roosevelt est - Encourages multi-purpose planning in waterway development: navigation, power, irrigation, flood control & water supply
New York Committee on the Congestion of Population 1907 - led by Benjamin Marsh - sought to decentralize NY's dense population
White House Conservation Conference 1908 - State governors, fed officials & leading scientists assemble to deliberate about the conservation of natural resources
First National Conference on City Planning 1909 - Washington DC
First Metropolitan Plan in US 1909 - Burnham - Chicago (key figures: Delano, Wacker, Norton)
First Course in City Planning 1909 - Harvard - James Sturgis Pray - taught in the Landscape Arch Department
Book: The Principles of Scientific Management 1911 - Frederick Winslow Taylor - discusses efficiency movements in US, including efficiency in city government
Wacker's Manuel of the Plan of Chicago 1912 - Walter Moody - adopted as an 8th grade textbook in City Planning - probably the first formal instruction in city planning below the college level
Charles Mumford Robinson In 1913 a Chair in Civic Design is granted to him in the Univ of Illinois's Dept. of Horticulture - he was one of the principal promoters of the World's Columbian Expo
Flavel Shurtleff Book: Carrying out the City Plan (1914) - first major textbook on city planning
Panama Canal Completion 1914 - Opens west to world of commerce
First Full-time Planning Employee Harland Bartholomew - 1914 - Newark, NJ - becomes the world's most famous planning consultant
Book: Planning of the Modern City Nelson Lewis - 1916
1st Comprehensive Zoning Resolution 1916 - New York City Board of Estimates - George McAneny & Edward Bassett
Edward Bassett Father of Zoning - wrote NYC zoning in 1916
National Park Service Established 1916 - Sole responsibility is to conserve & preserve resources of special value - started with Yosemite
American City Planning Institute 1917 - Olmstead, Jr. is first President - forerunner of the American Institute of Planners and AICP
Establishment of the US Housing Corp & Emergency Fleet Corp 1918 - influenced later endeavors in public housing - operated at major shipping centers to provide housing for WWI workers
Formation of the Boston Metropolitan District Commission 1919 - combines: Metro Sewerage Comm, Metro Water Board & Metro Park Commission
First Regional Planning Commission Los Angeles County - 1922
Regional Plan for NY & its Environs 1922 - Thomas Adams - focuses on suburban dev., hwy construction & suburban rec facilities - Created by Stein & Mumford
Thomas Adams Involved w/ Reg NY plan - imp to Garden City movement - Sec. of Garden City Assoc, 1st manager of Letchworth - taught @ Harvard & MIT - dev. several GC's in England
Mariemont, OH 1923 (groundbreaking) - Suburban Cincinnati - Mary Emery founder - John Nolen, Planner - Foreshadowed New Urbanism movement - short blocks, mixture of housing types, owner-occ housing)
John Nolen Designed Mariemont, OH - leading planner & landscape arch - created the first comp plan in FL - designed Venice, FL and parks in Madison, WI
Pennsylvania Coal Co v. Mahon 1922 - First decision to hold that a land use restriction constituted a taking - "prop may be reg to a certain extent but if reg goes too far it will be recognized as a taking" - principle of regulatory taking - Penn coal sued in resp to the Kohler Act
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act 1924 - US Dept. of Commerce under Sec Hoover - model law for US states to enable zoning regulations in their jurisdictions
Sunnyside Gardens, Queens, NY 1924-28 - Stein & Wright - planned neighborhood built by City Housing Corporation under Alexander Bing - Garden City - 77 acres, 1202 units
Publication of "Regional Plan" issue of Survey Graphic 1925 - Lewis Mumford - influential essays on regional planning - contributors incl members of the Regional Planning Association of American (Catherine Bauer)
First Major City to Officially Endorse a Comprehensive Plan 1925 - Cincinnati, OH - Bettman & Segoe - focused on infrastructure projects - called for planning to be controlled by a citizen Planning Commission
Concentric Zone or Circle Theory Burgess - 1925 - Chicago - believed that cities grow in a series of outward rings - 1st: cent business dist 2nd: industrial uses 3rd: zone of transition (ind & low-income r) 4th: zone of independent working mans homes 5th: high-class residential
First Volume of City Planning Published 1925 - American City Planning Institute & The National Conf on City Planning - ancestor of current Journal of the American Planning Association
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty 1926 - constitutionality of zoning upheld by court - case argued by Bettman - court found that as long as the comm believed there was a threat of a nuisance, the zoning ord should be upheld - est zoning as a proper use of police power (use)
Standard City Planning Enabling Act 1928 - US Dept of Commerce, Sec. Hoover - called for org of a PC to dev. master plan including street plan, control of subdivisions of land
Major Economic Factors in Metropolitan Growth and Arrangement 1928 - Robert Murray Haig - pub in New York & Environs - viewed land use as a function of accessibility
Radburn, NJ 1928 began - Garden City - Stein & Wright - forerunner of the New Deal Greenbelt Towns
Clarence Perry 1929 Published monograph on Neighborhood Unit in NY & Environs
First Rural Zoning Law 1929 - Wisconsin - authorized county boards to regulate, restrict and determine the areas within which agriculture, forestry & rec may be conducted
Stock Market Crash & Planning 1929 - Fosters ideas of Public Planning on a national scale
National Land Utilization Conference 1931 - Chicago - 300 ag experts deliberate on rural recovery programs & natural resource conservation
Federal Home Loan Bank System Established 1932 - est to shore up shaky home financing institutions
Establishment of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation 1932 - Created to revive econ activity by extending financial aid to failing financial, industrial & agricultural institutions
Est. Home Owners Loan Corporation 1933 - Created to save homeowners facing loss through foreclosure
Est. National Planning Board 1933 - Interior Dept. - assists in creation of a comp plan for Public Works under direction of Delano, Merriam & Mitchell - turned into National Resources Planning Board and was abolished in 1943
Est. Civilian Conservation Corps 1933 - Provided work for unemployed youth & conserved nation's national resources
Est. Federal Emergency Relief Administration 1933 - Hopkins - organized relief work in urban & rural areas
The Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933 - regulated agricultural trade practices, production, prices & supply areas (and therefore land use) as a recovery measure
American Society of Planning Officials Founded 1934 - org. for planners, planning commissioners & planning-related public officials
Taylor Grazing Act 1934 - regulates the use of the range in the West for conservation purposes
National Planning Board: Final Report 1934- based on first year in existence - included a section: A Plan for Planning and an account of the Hist. Dev. of Planning in the US - views American planning in the context of US political and economic history
Resettlement Administration 1935 - est under Tugwell (Roosevelt braintruster) to carry out experiments in land reform and pop resettlement - resulted in dev. of Greenbelt towns: Greendale, WI Greenhills, OH Greenbelt, MD
Rexford Tugwell Served as head of Resettlement Admin - worked on greenbelt cities program - served as NYC Planning Commissioner & governor of Puerto Rico - part of Roosevelt's New Deal "braintrust"
Book: Regional Factors in National Planning 1935 - National Resources Committee - landmark in regional planning lit
The Historic Sites, Buildings and Antiquities Act 1935 - req. Sec of the Interior to identify, acquire, and restore qualifying historic sites and properties and calls upon fed agencies to consider preservation needs in their programs and plans
Social Security Act 1935 - created as a safety net for the elderly - Frances Perkins, Sec. of Labor and first woman cabinet member was Principal Promoter
Grand Coulee Dam Auth 1935 - Central WA - finished in 1941 - largest concrete structure in US - heart of Columbian Basin Project (regional plan comparable to TVA) - projects purposes are irrigation, electric power gen & flood control in Pac NW
Hoover Dam Completed 1936 - creates and sustains pop growth & ind development in NV, CA & AZ
Book: Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy 1937 - landmark report by the Urbanism Committee of the National Resources Committee (Segoe led research staff)
US Housing Act (Wagner-Steagall) 1937 Set stage for future gov aid by appropriating $500 m in loans for low-cost housing - tied slum clearance to public housing
Est. Farm Security Administration 1937 - successor to resettlement admin - administrator of many programs to aid the rural poor
Creation of the American Institute of Planners 1938-39 - created from ACIP - forerunner of AICP -
Sector Theory 1939 - Homer Hoyt - Chicago - disagreed w/ circle theory - thought uses varied based on transportation routes from the center of the city - series of sectors radiating out from center
Book: Local Planning Administration 1941 - Ladislus Segoe - 1st book in green book series - prod by International City/County Management Assoc.
Book: Planning Function in Urban Government 1941 - Robert Walker -
Bretton Woods (New Hampshire) Agreement 1944 - US & allies meet to est. the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
Serviceman's Readjustment Act 1944 - GI Bill - guaranteed home loans to veterans under favorable terms - resulted in rapid settlement of suburbs - racially biased towards white veterans - also gave education $
Housing and Home Financing Agency 1947 - predecessor to HUD - created to coordinate fed gov various housing programs
Levittown, NY 1947 - planning community - Levitt considered father of modern suburbia - mass-produced suburb
Marshall Plan 1947 - Sec. Marshall announces plan for the reconstruction of postwar Europe
Housing Act (Wagner-Ellender-Taft Bill) 1949 First comprehensive housing legislation - aimed to construct about 800,000 units - inaugurated urban redevelopment program
The National Trust for Historic Preservation 1949 - non-profit - works on national policies and local pres campaigns - chartered by Congress
First Council of Governments 1954 - Detroit, MI - starts a COG movement with the formation of the Supervisors Inter-County Committee - representatives of each county in SE Michigan - sought to confront area-wide programs
Federal Aid Highway Act 1956 Multi-billion dollar Act to create interstate highway system linking all state capitals and most cities of 50k or more
Book: Urban Land Use Planning 1957 - F. Stuart Chapin - becomes a common planning textbook
Book: Education for Planning 1957 - Harvey Perloff - book-length inquiry into the "appropriate intellectual, practical and philosophical basis for the education of city and regional planners"
Article: Multiple Land Use Classification System 1959 - A. Guttenberg - published in Journal of American Institute of Planners - first approach to the definition of land-use classifications in multidimensional terms
Est. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) 1959 - Congress est. - inc. members of various gov branches - serves as a research agency & think tank in area of intergov relations
Est. American Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP) 1959 - created when a few dept. heads of planning schools got together at the annual ASIP conference to discuss common problems and interests regarding the education of planners
Completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway 1959 - joint US/Canada project - created a 4th North Amer seacoast - opened the Amer heartland to sea-going vessels
Book: Image of the City 1960 - Kevin Lynch - describes how individuals perceive and navigate the urban landscape - defines basic elements of a city's imageability (paths, edges, nodes)
Book: The Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961 - Jane Jacobs - Critique of planning and planners - special focus on mistakes in urban renewal
Book: And on the 8th Day 1961 - Hedman & Blair - funny book of cartoons poking fun at the planning professions by two planners
First State to Introduce State-wide Zoning 1961 - Hawaii
Creation of the Delaware River Basin Commission 1961 - represents NY, NJ & PA - created to foster joint management of the river's water resources
Creation of the Urban Growth Simulation Model 1962 - included in the Penn-Jersey Transportation Study
Article: A Choice Theory of Planning 1962 - Pub. in AIP Journal - Davidoff & Reiner - lays the basis for the advocacy planning concept
First Modern, Post-War Self Contained Town in US 1962 - Reston, VA - est. by Fairfax County Board of Supervisors - residential planned community zone - New Town, 18 mi from Wash DC - Simon - 5 village centers & one town center
Columbia, MD 1963 - Neighborhood Unit town - featured class integration - 10 self-contained villages - Rouse developer - sought to eliminate the inconvenience of suburban design and eliminate racial, religious and class sep.
Book: The Urban General Plan 1964 - TJ Kent
Civil Rights Act 1964 - outlaws discrimination based on race, creed and national origin in places of public accommodation - real estate implications
Book: The Federal Bulldozer 1964 - Martin Anderson - indicts then-current urban renewal program as counterproductive to its professed aims of increased low & middle income housing supply - contributes to a change in urban policy
Book: The Urban Villagers 1962 - Herbert Gans - a study of consequences for community life in a Boston West End Italian-Amer Community - contributes to a change in urban policy
Call for a Department of Housing and Community Development 1964 - commencement speech @ Univ Michigan - Lyndon Johnson declares a war on poverty and urges congressional auth of many remedial programs and the formation of a cabinet-level Dept. of Housing and Comm Dev
White House Conference on Natural Beauty 1965 - Lady Bird Johnson
Department of Housing and Urban Development 1965 - housing & urban policy achieve cabinet status - replaces the Housing and Home Finance Agency - Robert Weaver becomes HUD's first Secretary & first african american cabinet member
Water Resources Management Act 1965 - authorizes Federal-Multistate river basin commissions
The Public Works and Economic Development Act 1965 - establishes the Econ Dec Administration to extend coordinate, multifaceted aid to lagging regions and foster their development - provided grants to distressed communities
The Appalachian Regional Planning Act 1965 - est. a region comprising all of WV and parts of 12 other states, plus a planning commission with the power to frame plans and allocate resources - created when the states asked for help for their mountain communities (income, health care & transp)
Book: The Making of Urban America 1965 - John Reps - 1st comprehensive history of American urban planning beginning with colonial times
The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act 1966 - launched the model cities program: an interdisciplinary attack on urban blight and poverty - was a centerpiece of Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program
Book: With Heritage So Rich 1966 - Alfred Reins - seminol book in Heritage Preservation
National Historic Preservation Act 1966 - est. the National Register of Historic Places - provides (Section 106) for the prot of pres-worthy sites &properties threatened by fed activities - also created the National Advisory Council on Historic Pres & directed each state to appoint a SHPO
Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act 1966 - provides protection to parkland, wildlife refuges & other preservation-worthy resources in building national roads - includes privately owned historic sites in addition to public owned
50th Anniversary of the Planning Profession 1967 - celebratory conference in Wash DC is held - many of the earliest founders attend with current leaders of other professions
The Louis B. Wetmore Amendment 1967 - amended the 1938 AIP declaration of purpose which tied it to the comp arrangement and reg of land use to broaden the scope and membership of AIP to include social planners as well as physical planners
Circular A-95 1967 - requires states and substate regional clearinghouses to review and comment on federally assisted projects to facilitate coordination among the three levels of gov - needed to implement Intergovernmental Relations Act of 1968
Book: Design with Nature 1969 - Ian McHarg - ties planning to the natural environment by focusing on conservation design
Book: American City Planning since 1890 1969 - Mel Scott - reissued in 1995 by the APA
Federal Environmental Protection Agency est. 1970 - administers main provisions of the Clean Air Act
Adoption of the Miami (OH) Valley Regional Planning Commission Housing Plan 1970 - first such plan in the nation to allocate low & moderate-income housing on a fair-share basis
Adoption of the Code of Ethics for AIP 1971
General Revenue Sharing 1972 - inaugurated under the US State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act - appropriated fed tax revenue to states, cities, counties and townships - replaced with block grants in smaller amounts in Reagan Admin
Golden v. Planning Board of the Town of Ramapo 1972 - NY high court allows the use of performance criteria as a means of slowing community growth - growth man system that awarded points to dev proposals based on avail of public services - approval based on reaching a certain point level
Endangered Species Act 1972 - auth fed assistance to state and local jurisdictions to est conservation programs for endangered plant and animal species
The Housing and Community Development Act 1974 - replaces the categorical grant with the block grant as the principal form of federal aid for local community development
Cleveland Policy Plan Report 1975 - shifts emphasis from traditional land-use planning to advocacy planning - Krumholz was dir. of planning
First AIP exam 1977 - membership exam (pre-AICP)
Penn Central Transportation Co. v City of New York 1978 - court upholds NYC's landmark pres law as applied to Grand Central - court found that barring some dev of air rights was not a taking when the int. of the prop could be put to lucrative use - court held that rest imposed did not prevent const above
Merger of the American Institute of Planners and the American Society of Planning Officials 1978 - creates the American Planning Association
Beginning of the "Reagan Revolution" on planning 1980 - profession challenged to adapt to new (counter-New Deal) policy environment: reduced fed domestic spending, privatization, deregulation, etc. - phased out some earlier plann aids (sewer grants) and planning programs
Superfund Bill - Comprehensive Response, Compensation & Liability Act 1980 - creates liability for persons discharging hazardous waste into the env. - taxes polluting industries to est. a trust fund for the cleanup of polluted sites in cases where individual resp. is not known
Est. The Associated Collegiate Schools of Planning (ACSP) 1980 - represents the academic branch of the planning profession
First Edition of The Journal of Education and Planning Research 1981 - issued by Assoc College School of Planning (ACSP)
Fair Share Mt. Laurel Action on New Jersey 1983 - court said that all 567 municipalities must build their fair-share of affordable housing - precedent-setting blow against racial segregation
Southern Burlington Co NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel 1983 - Mt. Laurel had exc zoning that prohibited multi-family, mobile home & low-income housing - court required the town to open its doors to all income levels (and the state)
Seaside, FL 1984 - construction begins - earliest ex of the New Urbanism concept (Duany & Plater-Zyberk) - emphasizes urban features: compactness, walkability, mixed use - links to the anti-sprawl, smart growth movement
First National Conference on American Planning History 1986 - Columbus, OH - leads to the founding of the Society of American City and Regional Planning History (SACRPH) in 1987
The Planning Accreditation Board (PAB) 1989 - recognized by the Washington-based Council on Post Secondary Education to be the sole accrediting agency in the field of professional planning education
Enterprise Zone/Empowerment Community (EZ/EC) 1993 - proposal signed into law - aims tax incentives, wage tax credits, special deductions and low-interest financing to a limited number of impoverished urban and rural communities to jumpstart their economic and social recovery
Dolan v. Tigard 1994 - dolan wanted to exp business, PC req land ded & ped/bike path to alleviate traffic in area - court found that there must be a rational nexus between the exaction & the dev. - created rough proportionality test
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1994 - US/Canada/Mexico - purpose to foster trade and investment among the three nations by removing or lowering non-tariff as well as tariff barriers
Est. College of Fellows by AICP 1999 - recognizes distinguished individual contributions by longer term AICP members
2000 Creation of 8 new National Monuments Clinton - Canyons of the Ancients (CO), Cascade-Siskiyou (OR). Hanford Ranch (WA), Ironwood Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant, Agua Fria (AZ), Grand Sequoia (CA) and expanded Pinnacles in CA
First Land Use Zoning Restriction 1867 - San Francisco - a restriction on the location of obnoxious uses in an area it had annexed - led to Haddacheck v. Sebastian (brickyard wanted to go in a res. zone)
First local civic center plan 1903 - Cleveland - Burnham, Carrere & Brunner worked on the plan
First major US city to apply the City Beautiful Principles 1906 - San Francisco - plan dev. by Burnham
First Town Planning Board Created 1907 - Hartford, CT
First State to pass Enabling Legislation 1909 - Wisconsin
First City to use Land Use Zoning to Guide Development 1909 - Los Angeles
First Federally Supported Public Housing 1934 - Cleveland but Atlanta was first to occupy
Book: The Rise of the Creative Class 2003 - Richard Florida - focuses on importance of creative professionals in overall economic growth & health of urban areas
Book: The Intelligence of Democracy Charles Lindblom
Book: The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces 1980 - William Whyte - promotes the use of environmental psychology & sociology in urban design
Charles Abrams Created NY Housing Authority - wrote: The City is a Frontier in 1965 - provided harsh criticism to Fed policies surrounding slum clearance, urban renewal & public housing
Robert Moses Transformed NYCs public works from 1930s-50s - expanded state park system & built numerous parkways - built playgrounds, hwys, bridges, tunnels & public housing - also criticized fro some of his work
Sir Raymond Unwin English town planner - designer of Letchworth - lectured at Columbia later in life
Catherine Bauer Wurster Founder of American Housing Policy - worked to reform policy related to housing & city planning - served as exec sec of Regional Planning Association of America - influential in the passing of the Housing Act of 1937
Clarence Perry Developed the neighborhood unit concept seen in Radburn, NJ - key contributor to the NY & Environs plan
Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr Father of landscape architecture - responsible for some of the nation's most important parks (Central Park & Niagra Reservation) - part of the design team for Riverside, IL (1868) - created master plans for Stanford & Berkeley
Paolo Soleri Responsible for designing Arcosanti - experimental utopian city in ZA that focused on min impact of development on the natural environment
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