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History

exam

question answer
why was there a feudal system? to restore law and order organising and controlling people
describe the feudal structure? monarch (king), lord and bishop (tenants in chief), knights and lesser clergy (sub- tenants) and peasantry.
what did the monarch do? gave land to tenants in chief they paid rent in the form of loyalty and military support.
what did the tenants in chief do? they provided fully equipped knight to serve in the army for 40 days a year in the monarchs army. provided the king with money, advice and prayers when needed.
what did the sub tenants do? they received land form the tenants in chief in return for fighting in wars for the king or praying for his success. guarding an protecting the person and property of the chief in tenant.
what did the peasants do? they were allocated small land by sub tenants. worked on the knights or lords land as well as their own and paid taxes in form of crops.
John 1 who was he, what did he do and how did he die? he was a ruler or England and did not follow the magna carter, he died in battle with the barons.
roles in the society (upper class men) controlled medieval Europe, lived on income from their estates and enjoyed the influence it gave them. they heard and decided disputes, fought in battles for the king participated in politics and hunting or other sports.
roles in the society (upper class women) they had less opportunity in politics, worked around household, looked after the sick, made sure estate was in good repair, ordered defence for husbands, kept property safe from enemies.
roles in the society ( upper class boys) they went to school or a at home. learn't manners, grammer, astronomy, philosophy, maths and sports that helped him train for battle.
roles in the society (upper class girls) learn't education by female relative or tutor. they learn't how to organise the house hold, trained in music, singing, conversation and manners and read and write.
roles in the society (lower class men) provide and protect the nobles, farmed, served in the army as soldiers.
roles in the society ( lower class women) harvested crops, cooked, childcare and spun and weaved cloth.
roles in the society (lower class children) worked on basic tasks, helped in fields or learn't' trade, girls learn't house chores, boys got a free education if were interested.
what is a manor? the castle or large house surrounded by the village.
who controlled the manor? a lord or a lady it was made up about one third of the village.
what was located in a common? common grazing for animals, church, lords hunting forests, fenced in meadows and a large castle or house.
peasants house lived in one or two roomed huts, with clay walls, unglazed windows, dirty floors and hatched roofs, no running water no bath facilities, no beds, in winter they shared a space with there animals. had there own small garden.
wealthys house they had storage houses, castle two or more storeys high,tiled floors, elaborate furniture, hung tapestries for decoration.
what were tenant farmers? they were farmers who bought there freedom and paid rent and serviced the land.
what were serfs? they were people who the lord owned and who worked three days each week on his land and worked five days a week on harvest time.
what were labourers? they had no other land than their cottage plot they survived by working for others mending tools or by renting out farm animals.
what was the three fields system? one field had no crops - so it could recover and cattle grazed it. two fields into to metric wide strips - grew barely on these.
how long did peasants work? from sunrise to sun down
what was the lords power? the serfs had to ask lord for permission to leave, get married, sell animals or have children or to read and write. peasants paid taxes to use his equipment and they paid more taxes if kids were married.
how did people eat? they ate food that was available in that season. they could not eat meat on Friday or catholic season of advent.
what did peasants eat? they ate, bread, cheese, pottage, some veiges and drank water or ale.
what did lords eat? they ate wild animals meat (deer, squirrels, rabbits etc) didn't eat vegies because they believed it was for lower class.
what food was served at castle banquets? stale bread on wood trenches for plates, they ate with knives, spoons, and fingers. expensive spices cinnamon, ginger and pepper from asia and to add flavour to food.
what were the crimes that were punished? offences such as stealing firewood from lords forest, nagging ones husband, murder, witchcraft or treason.
what was witchcraft? people believed that they were the devils followers, women were burn't alive for natural disasters or a still birth or jealous or desire for revenge,
what was treason? treason was murdering from higher class, dis-loyalty to king or queen.
what was canon law? they would whip and fine people if they worked on Sundays or holy days a serious crime was hersay.
how did they keep crime in control in villages? if people saw something they had to report it but if they didn't the whole village was punished.
what were the five methods of testing if they were guilty or not? trial by congregation, trial by combat, trial by jury, trial by ordeal.
what was trial by congregation? 12 people had to recite an oath, if someone messed up it mean't the person was guilty
what was trial by combat? they would fight and who ever one would be not the guilty one, nobles used fighters to fight there battles.
what was trial by ordeal ? people who were said to be guilty were thrown into the water tied up and if they sank it was a sign or innocence and if they floated it was a sign of guilt. another is to burn the hand and if it doesn't heal in 3 days they were guilty.
what was trial by jury? henry the 2 created a court among 12 men who decided if you were guilty or not.
torture was used as a punishment name the ways they punished people. weaving scold bridle, burning in fire, the duelling stool, the pillory or hanging, imprisonment and execution.
what was the one policy if a woman was pregnant? if a woman was pregnant and she was punished they would wait until the baby was born until they would punish her.
who strengthen the catholic church and what did he do? Pope Gregory sent bishops to Africa, England, France, Italy and Spain to spread the word of the lord, he had follower monks who were pure.
what was the social structure in the catholic church ? Pope, cardinals, Arch- bishops, bishops , priest,monks and Friors
what was the cathedral like? it was 100 metres tall, Roman architecture, largest building and expensive decorations.
who fought to gain land for the king? lords and peasants
what did the army look like? knight on horseback - nobleman, squires knights in training, other professional soldiers on horse back, infantry foot soldiers- archers, using long bows and cross bows, cavalry those on horse back elite troops.
what was the armour like in the 11th century? it was chain mail armer and a leather tunic often worn like and outer garment with the family coat of arms it was heavy, chain mail helmets.
what was the armour like in the 15th century? full body armour, good protection, heavy difficult to fight in.
what weapons were used? shield, sword, a lance, spiked metal, dagger, axes, javelins and bows.
what time of archers were their? cross bow archers and long bow archers.
what were the different protections built at the top of a castle? merlin, crenel , loop hole with wider sides.
what was a long bow? it was about 1.6- 1.8 m
what was a cross bow? cross bow was heavier and had a shorter range.
what was a moat? around the outside of a castle
city gate? soldiers would control
wall tower? easier for observants
walkway? for soliders
how would a siege begin? a siege would begin by an army around the town. it would usually start with starvation and disease were the most efficient methods for the town to surrender.
what improvements were made to castles? they got thicker walls, loop holes, port holes and gun powder.
what was designed in the early 1100's on armour? long shaped helmet protected the nose, long chain mail suit with sleeves called hauberk made from metal rings.
what was designed in the late 1100's on armour? helmet was rounder with a wider nose, loose fitting surcoat worn over chain mail armour to protect it from the suns heat.
what was designed in the late 1300's on armour? helmets were visor can be lifted, armour with chain mail and plate is very heavy, shield used for protection, iron gloves called gauntlets and padded stockings.
what was designed in the 1400's on armour? armour weighed 25 kg's more flexible, lighter helmets called borbutes, plate armour from iron, joined with metal rivets and leather strips, no shield, chain mail leggings, iron shoes.
what is a merlin? the raised part of a battlement scaling ladder.
what is a crenel? the opening in a battlement through which defenders use their weapons.
what is a gatehouse? a room that operates the gate which is heavily defended
what is a loop hole? a slit through with soldiers shooting arrows.
what is a caste ? surronded by a ditch with water or stakes
what is a mangonel? a catipult used to hurl objects e.g heads
what is a ballista ? a giant cross bow, flamming bolts
what is a trebutchet? counter weighted catapult, toss rotting bodies.
what are missiles? they are explosives dropped on attackers through machicolachens
what is an archer? a skilled person in cross bow or long bow
what is a battlement? protective wall at the top of a castle
what is the Black death? a plague or disease that began in Asia it is the deadliest in history, killed millions, killed half of the population.
how was the disease evolved? started on fleas who were diseased then bit and infected others fleas to bit into them, late infected fleas went to dead rats to rats to humans and finally got bitten you got the plague.
what were the symptoms of the black death? a lot of pain, blue/ black tumours in groin and armpits, pus and smells, coughing blood, fever, nausea and vomiting.
what were the crusades? a series of military campaigns that Christians fought from 1096-1291 against Muslims. to control areas of Palestine and Jerusalem which Muslims rules since 638 CE
what did pope Urban promise form crusades? provide safety for pilgrims, bring Jerusalem the holy land to Christian rule, provide outlet for violence, unify Christians between a common cause.
when was the first crusade? 1069-1099
when was the second crusade? 1147-1149 which failed
when was the third crusade? 1187-1192 they won
what did Muslims give? spice , silk, satin, cotton and fabrics.
describe the social structure of Japan emperor, shogun,daimyo, shamurai, ronin,peasants.artisans and merchants and tax collectors.
what was lower than the merchants and tax collectors the filth and the non persons.
why does Japan not have peasants at the bottom of the social structure? because they believe if you don't have a skill you are not considered worthy or useful.
what did the emperor do? he was a leader, had no power, was more sumbolic
what did the shogun do? leader of army, leader of japan
what did the damimyo do? like nobles, support the emperor plus shogun.
what did a shamurai do? kept order among peasants paid solider
what did a ronin do? was a solider by had no master.
what did the peasants do? were farmers, fisherman, 90% of japan
what did Artisan do ? made paper and swords craft people
what did merchants and tax collectors do? trade money and items
how did the emperor lose power? As the power of the emperor weakened in the twelfth century, some powerful daimyos took the opportunity to try to seize power It was a period marked by fighting throughout Japan, as well as natural disasters such as floods, typhoons and earthquakes.
who was inamoto no Yoritomo? inamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199).. Instead of making himself emperor, he persuaded the imperial court to recognise his power with the title seii tai-shogun (barbarian-subduing great-general), while he allowed the emperor to keep his symbolic position.
what powers did he grant the shoguns? the right to appoint his own men to administer the provinces,the right to appoint land stewards to raise taxes, of which some went to the emperor and the rest to the shogun, the right to appoint military protectors in each of the provinces.
what were the two main religions in Japan? Shintoism and Buddhism
why was Shintoism important? Worship of kami was given the name Shinto, meaning ‘way of the gods’. Up to the time of World War II, the emperors used Shinto beliefs to support their position, claiming that the royal family descended from the sun goddess.
what were the basic beliefs of Shintoism? Tradition and the family. Birth, marriage and other ceremonies related to family life are especially significant. Being in contact with nature means being in contact with the gods.Physical cleanliness.
when did Buddhism emerge? Buddhism came to Japan from Korea and China in the sixth century and was soon adopted by the ruling families.
what did Zen Buddhism do? sit quietly like the Buddha in the lotus position, control their breathing, and empty their minds. e. It appealed particularly to the warrior class and the tea ceremony.
what did Zen Buddhism and Shintoism have in common? they respect the natural world so that meditation, landscape painting and garden design.
Created by: __Jesssicaaaaa__
 

 



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