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A & P I Laboratory

Muscles of the body

Indentions between the bones of the fetal skull Fontanels
Joints Articulations
Immovable joints Synarthroses
Slightly movable joints Amphiarthroses
Freely moveable joints Diarthroses
The bones are joined by fibrous tissue Fibrous Joints
The articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage Carilaginous Joints
Joints in which the articulating bone ends are separtated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid Synovial Joints
The joint surfaces are enclosed by a two-layered, articular capsule (a sleeve of connective tissue), creating a joint cavity Structural Characteristic of Synovial Joints
The inner layer is a smooth connective tissue membrane called synovial membrane, which produces a lubricating fluid (synovial fluid) that reduces friction. The outer layer, or fibrous capsule, is dense irregular connective tissue Structural Characteristic of Synovial Joints
Articular (hyaline) cartilage covers the surfaces of the bones forming the joint. Structural Characteristic of Synovial Joints
The articular capsule is typically reinforced with ligaments and may contain bursae (fluid-filled sacs that reduce friction where tendons cross bone) Structural Charactersitic of Synovoial Joints
Fibrocartilage pads (articular discs) may be present within the capsule Structural Characterisitic of Synovial Joints
Articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved, allowing sliding movements in one or two planes. Examples are the intercarpal and intertarsal joints and the vertebrocostal joints of ribs 2-7 Plane (Gliding)
THe rounded process of one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one place (uniaxial), usually flexion and extension. Examples are the elbow and interphalangeal joints Hinge
The rounded or conical surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression or foramen in another bone. Pivor joints allow uniaxial rotation, as int he proximal radioulnar joint and the joint between the atlas and axis Pivot
The oval condyle of one bone fits into a ellipsoidal depression in another bone, allowing biaxial (two-way) movemetn. The radiocarpal and the metacarpophalangeal joints (knuckles) are examples Condyloid (Ellipsidal)
Articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped; the articulating surface of one bone is convex, and the reciprocal surface is concave. Saddle joints, which are biaxial, include the joint between the thumb metacarpal and the trapezium of the wrist Saddle
The ball-shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of another. These are multiaxial joints, allowing movement in all directions and pivtoal rotaions. Examples are the shoulder and hip joints Ball-and-Socket
A movement, generally i the sagital plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between the two bones. Flexion is typical of hinge joints (bending the knee or elbow) but is also common at ball-and-socket joints Flexion
A movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body (straightening the knee or elbow); the opposite of flexion Extension
Movement of a limb away from the midline or median place of the body, generally on the frontal plane, or the fanning movement of fingers or toes when they are spread apart Abduction
Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body; opposite of abduction Adduction
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement. Rotation, a common movement of ball-and-socket joints, also describes the movement of the atlas around the odontoid process of the axis Rotation
Created by: psychmajor2008