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AICP 2016 Prep Set 4

American Institute of Certified Planners - May 2016 Exam

QuestionAnswer
Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) Work on transp. planning issues - Req. by Fed-Aid Act 1962 for urban areas - Fed Hwy Admin required creation of planning agencies to carry out reg. transp. planning processes - orig. regional councils, now most housed inside another gov. ag. EX: MTC
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) Req. by Fed. Hwy Admin for areas with pop. of 200K or more - prepared by MPOs (along with reg. plan) - TIP reps trans. improv. priorities of the region - shows est. costs & schedules for project phases - inclusion of proj. means exp. to be implemented
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Gen term to describe strategies for the efficient use of transportation - include: car share, flextime, public transit, TODs, Telecommuting, HOV lanes, Guaranteed Ride Home, Park-n-Ride
Flextime TDM allows employees to work at different times beyond 8 to 5 - ind. can choose a 4-day workweek, come in earlier, or stay later - modifies congestion during peak times
Guaranteed Ride Home provides commuters who regularly carpool or use transit with a reliable ride home if an emergency rises
Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Programs that provide commuters with resources and incentives to reduce their vehicle trips, particularly during peak commute hours
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) specif. designed to enc. use of pub. transp - typ diameter of 1/4 to 1/2 mile - station surr. by high dens. which decreases as you go away - allows supp. of comm. uses around stations - Adv: reduced VMT & veh. trips, inc. biking & walk, emissions red.
Traffic Calming Accord to ITE, involves changes in street alignment, installation of barriers & other physical barriers to reduce speed & cut through volumes - Variety of methods: chicane, choker, speed humps, traffic circles
Chicane Staggered curb extensions on alternating sides of the roadway - speed is reduced by drivers having to manuever along road
Choker Curb extension in the middle of block, narrows street
Realigned Intersections Changes alignment of roadway near an intersection - causes traffic to slow when entering intersection because it curves
Roundabouts vs. Traffic Circles R=Used on larger Streets TC=local streets Both are low speed and the driver in the circle has the right-of-way
Speed Humps vs. Speed Tables SH= raised areas 3-4 inch tall ST= flat-top and may have brick or other material on top, long enough for the entire vehicle to sit on top of the flat section of the table
Size of standard parking stall? 9x18
Complete Streets safe, accessible and convenient streets that everyone can use regardless of age, mobility or mode of transportation - including motorists, bicyclists, pedestrians and transit riders
Environmental Impact Statements must address how many key sections? 4: 1. Introduction & Need for Proposed Action 2. Desc. of Affected Env. 3. Range of Alt (heart of the EIS) 4. Analysis of the Env. Imp. of each of the alternatives
Environmental Impact Statements must address how many topics? 5: 1. Probable impact of proj. 2. Adv impacts that cant be avoided 3. Alt. to the proposed proj. 4. Relationship between local short-term uses of the env. & the maint. and enhance of long-term prod. of the land 5. Any irreversible commitments of resources
The Scoping Report (EIS) Req, a desc. of the prop. proj. & any feas. & reasonable alt., a desc. of the prop & the env. that may be affected & the manner in which the biological, social, econ, & cult. aspects of the env may be impacted by the prop. proj., also incl. public process
Example City of Neo-Traditional Development Seaside, FL
What is a Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area A geographic entity, as defined by the Fed. Office of Management & Budget for use by federal statistical agencies, is based on the concept of two or more overlapping core areas with a large pop. nuclei that includes at least 1 million people.
Public Health Movement 1850-1900
First model Tenement Built in NYC in 1855
First dumbbell Tenement Built in NYC in 1879 - had poor lighting, little air & little space - built throughout NYC - major sanitation issues and fire hazard
Tenement House Act of 1867 NYC - Required new tenement buildings to provide a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures - windows that open to the shaft - two toilets on each floor - one sq. yd. window in each room - 1st major housing code in the US
Book: How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis - 1890 - highlighted the plight of the poor in NYC - also wrote children of the tenements - served as a basis for many reforms of working-class housing - exposing the slums to NYC's upper and middle class
Tenement House Law of 1901 Outlawed dumbbell tenements - required wide light & air areas between buildings - req. toilets and running h20 in each unit - code was vigorously enforced by the City with required inspections and permits for const. and alterations
Neighborhood Unit Concept Clarence Perry - 1920 - defined as part of the NY Regional Plan - defines a neighborhood based on a 5 min. walking radius - at the center is a school and each neighborhood is approx 160 acres - Stein carried his work into Radburn, NJ
Public Works Administration (PWA) 1934 - combated the Great Depression - provided 85% of the cost of public housing projects - represented the first federally supported public housing program
National Housing Act 1934 - established the Federal Housing Administration with the purpose of insuring home mortgages
Resettlement Administration 1935 - used New Deal funds to develop new towns based on the Garden City movement - Greendale, WI Greenhills, OH Greenbelt, MD (still around today) - 99 additional comm. were planned
Greenbelt Communities Characteristics Housing situated within easy walking distance of gardens, employment and the town center - 3 goals: combine the adv of city & country life, provide good housing at a reasonable price for mod income families & to prov. jobs to unemployed
Serviceman's Readjustment Act 1944 - aka GI Bill - guaranteed home loans to veterans - paid for veterans college educations - resulted in the rapid dev. of the suburbs - was also socially unbalanced and racist towards black veterans
Housing Act of 1949 1st comprehensive housing legislation passed - called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units & emphasized slum clearance
Housing Act of 1954 Called for slum prevention & urban renewal - provided funding for planning for cities under 25K (701 funds) and were later expanded to allow for state-wide, interstate & regional planning
Housing Act of 1959 Made federal matching funds available for comprehensive planning at the metropolitan, regional, state and interstate levels
Housing Act of 1961 Provided interest subsidies to non-profit org., limited dividend corp, cooperatives & public agencies for the construction of low-moderate rental projects
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Made racial discrimination in home buying or renting illegal - made disc. as a whole illegal -
U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) 1965 - Formed through the Housing & Urban Development Act of 1965
Housing & Urban Development Act of 1965 Created HUD - put rent subsidies into place for the poor, home loans at reduced interest rates & subsidies for public housing projects
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act 1966 - Launch of the model cities program - provided financial incentives for coordinated metro area planning for open spaces, water supply, sewage disposal and mass transit - also est loan prog to enc dev. of new communities
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 Provided for the construction of six million subsidized housing units - also authorized monthly subsidies for private houses for low income families
Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission (Ohio) 1970 - adopted a housing plan that called for low and moderate income housing to be allocated on a fair share basis
Pruitt-Igoe Project Demolition (St. Louis) 1972 - demo of this public housing project marked a shift away from high-rise concentrated public housing
Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG) 1974 - created under the Housing and Comm. Dev. Act - provided flexibility for comm. to use fed. funds for the imp. of blighted areas - consolidated 6 urban prog. into one - Act created the Section 8 programs (subsidies for low-income housing)
National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act of 1974 Reg manufactured housing units and prohibited comm for regulating man. homes thru the building code - homes could be reg. in terms of location, size and appearance only - applied to all man. homes built in 1976 or later.
Urban Development Action Grant Program (UDAG) 1977 - under amendments to the 1974 Housing Act - promoted public-private partnerships for redevelopment of urban areas - also required intergov cooperation in the placement of projects - also cut funding for the Section 701 comp planning prog.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 Created the HOME program - provides funding for housing rehabilitation - aka Cranston-Gonzalez Act - sought to retain low and med income housing
HOPE VI 1992 (Congress) - provided funds for the redev. of severely distressed public housing - allowed for the demo of pub housing as well as the const. of new pub housing - resulted in a de-centralization of pub. housing
How are communities deemed eligible for HUD funding? Communities must have a consolidated housing plan - req. since 1995 - collaborative process where a comm. est a unified vision for the comm. dev actions - analyze entire comm and explore areas where new housing units can be built EX: Housing Element
What previous planning and application requirements does the Housing Consolidated Plan process replace? Comm. Dev. Block Grant application - HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) - Emergency Shelter Grant (ESG) - Housing Opp. for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA)
Housing Consolidated Plan a process and a document - ids homeless and comm. dev. needs and est. multi-year goals, priorities and strategies - details housing profile and needs assessment - inc. long-term plan, annual action plan & prog. perf. reports
What is Sweat Equity? The interest or increased value in a prop. earned from labor put towards the restoration of a prop. EX: Habitat for Humanity, helps families become homeowners by contributing hours of labor towards the const. of a home
What is urban homesteading? Used by a number of cities to encourage residents to occupy and renovate vacant properties EX: Detroit, HUD allows for fed. owned properties to be sold to homesteaders
What is workforce housing? Refers to affordable housing - ensures that teachers, nurses, police officers and others can afford housing in the comm. - word has less social stigma than affordable housing
HUD: Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Comp. grant program designed to assist cities with the redev. of abandoned & underused ind. and comm. facilities, where exp. & redev. is burdened by real or potential env. contamination
HUD: CDBG Disaster Recovery (CDBG-DR) Assistance Flexible grants to help cities, counties, parishes & states recover from pres. declared disasters, esp. in low and moderate income areas
HUD: CDBG for Insular Areas Fed. funding to help US territories meet their housing and comm. dev. needs
HUD: Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCUs) Program Helps HBCUs expand their role and effectiveness in addressing comm. dev. needs, including revitalization, housing and econ dev especially for persons of low and moderate income
HUD: Hispanic Serving Institutions Assisting Communities (HSIAC) Program helps HSIs revitalize their local communities and foster long-term changes in the was they relate to their neighbors - addressing the most critical social and economic issues: poverty, education, housing, healthcare, etc.
HUD: Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities (AN/NHIAC) Program helps AN/NHIACs revitalize their local communities and foster long-term changes in the was they relate to their neighbors - addressing the most critical social and economic issues: poverty, education, housing, healthcare, etc.
HUD: Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) Program assists TCUs in building, expanding, renovating and equipping their own facilities - also helps the univ. give back to the communities
HUD: Continuum of Care Program Promotes community-wide commitment to the goal of ending homelessness - provides funding to quickly re-house homeless ind & families while minimizing trauma & dislocation - optimizes self-sufficiency for homeless ind & families
HUD: Housing Opp. for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) provides allocation to eligible & qual. cities, non-profits, states to provide housing assist. and related supportive services to meet the housing needs of low-income persons and their families living with HIV/AIDS
Subdivision The division of land into two or more parcels, sites or lots for the purpose of transfer of ownership, development or other form of valuable interest - may include minimum lot size. width, etc.
Plat A plat is a map of a tract or parcel of land
Replat Allows for lots to be subdivided further or added back together
Amending Plat Corrects errors or adds additional info to a plat
Vacating Plat Allows for a plat to be terminated prior to the sale of any of the lots
Final Plat the approved preliminary play with all bearing, monuments, curves, and notations along with all dedications, easements & approvals
Purpose of Subdivision Regulations? 1. reg. dev & implement plann policies 2. impl. plans for orderly growth & dev within city bound. 3. ensure adequate public provisions 4. ensure services are avail 5. req. compliance with standards 6. officially register land
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (ETJ) The distance outside of the city limits where the subdivision regulations apply - specified under state law
Impact Fees Typically charged for off-site infrastructure that is needed to provide service to a development EX: water main, park land
Subdivision Bonuses The extension of dev benefits beyond those normally offered in exchange for enhancements such as affordable housing, cluster housing and open space pres. - developer may receive assis w/ infrastructure, imp. fees may be waived or may get higher density
Year of the First US Census? 1790
What is Zoning? The separation of land uses - land use is controlled by zoning - implemented through locally enacted legislation that reg. & controls the use of private property
Purposes of Zoning? 1. Prot. & maint. prop value 2. promo pub. health & safety 3. prot. env 4. promo aesthectic value 5. manage traffic 6. manage density 6. enc. a variety of housing 7. attract bus. & industries
What does Zoning regulate? Land Use - Lot Size - Density - Building Placement - Height - Bulk - Setbacks - Prov. of light & air - Parking - Landscaping - Signage
Staff role in zoning Provide info to the public - review applications & write reports for the PC, Zoning Comm, & Zoning Board of Adj.
Planning and Zoning Commission Issue recommendations in matters of zoning - made up from comm members or bus. owners - read reports, do site visits, come prep. to part in meetings - should think long-term
Board of Zoning Appeals aka Zoning Board of Adjustment - quasi-judicial board that hears cases for variances, special exceptions to the ord., & appeals of staff admin of the ord - typ. mem of the comm serve on this board
City Council (County Commission) Governing body of the City - final say on decisions regarding zoning - make decisions on zoning map/text & comp plan
Zoning Text (Zoning Code) Lays out the exact regulations that the zoning is created to implement - must est. diff. zones & uses allow in each (by right or CUP) - defines reg. on setbacks, parking, variances, processes, etc.
Zoning Map Where zoning becomes applicable to ind. properties - color-coded map (some cities use letters) - common: or/br for multi-fam, y for SF, red for retail & comm, g for open space/park, p for ind. & b for gov.
Zoning Amendments Either to text or map - map: one prop (or a few), text: all props in zone - can be initiated by staff, PC, CC or prop owner - amend allow city to be flexible & responsive to changing needs
Euclidean Zoning Named after Euclid, OH - places most rest. on res land uses, less on comm. and virtually none on ind uses - SF res. would be the top of the pyramid
Cumulative Zoning SF districts are exclusive but each successive zone allows all uses from previous - SF>MF>Comm>Ind EX: person could build SF house in Ind. zone but factory could only be in Ind zone
Modified Cumulative Zoning Modifies Cumm Zon. - in this zoning districts are cumm by land use EX MF could have all res. types but not in Ind. Ind could have Comm.
Conditional Use Permit Allows a certain use in a district only when it is compatible with its surroundings EX: Churches, bars - allows conditions placed on the use - can run with the land or the ownership of the use
Non-conforming Use aka Grandfathered - use that existed prior to the adoption of the current reg. - can be indefinite until use changes or use amortization - most ord req. conformance if a certain % is destroyed or use is discontinued - happens in annex, signs
Amoritization Sets a definite per of time in which a use would need to be in compliance with ordinance - controversial because it req. city to determine the fair period of time during which the use will be allowed to cont. before it has to be in compliance
Accessory Use One that is incidental to the main use of a prop. - typically located on the same lot as the main use and smaller in size EX: outside retail sales, home occupation, 2nd unit, outdoor storage
Planned Unit Development (PUD) a unique zoning tool that can offer an alt to strict zoning reg. - planned up front entirely - allow flexibility in site design in exchange for increased open space, afford housing, etc
Overlay District A set of additional restrictions that are placed over the top of an existing zone - common EX: historic zones and airports - airport: noise and density restrictions - historic: protection requirements - Other: flood hazard zones, enterprise zones
Variance (Zoning) A change in terms of the zoning reg due to econ or phy hardship - use or land types - req for grant: 1. unique to surr. prop 2. phy or econ hardship 3. not result in red. of prop values 4. owner did not cause need 5. not contrary to the spirit of the ord.
Big-box retail EX: Walmart - box shaped, usually more than 50K sq. ft. - local gov have reg. in many ways
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations Practice of raising farm animals indoors and in high volumes - local gov limited in the ability to reg. comm farms because of Right-to-farm Acts
Right-to-Farm Act All fifty states have enacted right-to-farm laws that seek to protect qualifying farmers from nuisance lawsuits filed by ind who move into a rural area where normal farming operations exist, and who later use nuisance actions to att to stop those ong oper
LBCS Dimensions 1. Activity - actural observ. use of land 2. Function - econ function 3. Structure - type of struc or build on land 4. Site - overall phy dev of the land 5. Ownership - rel. between use and its land rights (pub/priv)
CD: Aging Info By 2030, 20% of the US pop will be over 65 - planning for aging communities is imp.
Community Development Banks Banks that operate with a focus on econ dev in low to mod-income areas - cert. by the US Dept. of Treasury - can seek the alt. des. by the Nat. Comm Investment Fund for banks that located & prov. loans in distressed areas
Colonias uninc. subd. with little or no infrastructure that are sold to low-income ind. - loc. in CA, AZ, NM & TX and res. are hispanic - have grown b-cuz of lim supply of afford housing near Mexico borders - more than 400K people living in 2200 colonias in TX
Child Care Comm. are challenged with a lack of qual, afford child care - issue planners have to address
Homelessness Grown over the last 20 years due to growing shortage of rental housing and an increase in poverty
Educational Planning Schools are essen. but need careful planning
Special Interest Provision related to Billboards in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act & Fed Highway Beautification Act Inability to regulate bill ordi by local jurisdictions along highly visible transp routes - results in a decrease in funding from the fed gov if violated - 1978 disallowed amortization for non-conf billboards on hwy and req. juris to pay out billboard own
2 Ways Planners can Address the Climate Change Issue 1. Mitigation - reduction in GHG (TDM, PDR or TDR, green building) 2. Adaptation - moving development away from the coast, supporting xeriscape, etc.
Climate Change Impacts Direct - sea-level rise, drought, fire, flooding Indirect - Population migration for better climate
Globalization of the Food Economy In 2006 for the first time, the value of food imported into the US exceeded our export value.
Rural Decline Farms between 50-500 acres and 500-1000 acres decreased by 7 and 11% between 1997-2002 - farms over 2000 acres have gone up 5%
Energy Consumption in the Food System Energy-intensive & inefficient today - ave food item travels 1500 miles - growing, process, and delivering the food for one fam of 4 requires more than 930 gal of gas (same to fuel their cars each year)
Hunger & Food Insecurity In 2005, 11% of US households were food insecure (lack of suff. food) - Highest for Black (22.4%) and Hispanic (17.9%) families compared to the national average
Food Stamps In 2003, 21.2 m ind. part in food stamps, represents only 60% of the people eligible
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program Part of the Clean Water Act - requires a comp inventory and assessment of impaired waters in order to determine the amounts of pollutants being discharged into a waterway from all potential sources
Changes to Wetlands in US In 1700's wetlands represented approx 221 m acres of the US - 1997 105 m acres (48% of the original) - 75% of the remaining wetlands are privately owned and only .5% have any conservation protection
Army's Net Zero Goal 25 net zero installations by 2030 - waste, energy & water
State-wide Growth Management Plan Oregon
Edge-City Joel Garreau (book) 1991 - a new conc. of businesses, shopp, entertain outside a trad urban area in what had been a suburb or rural comm. Reps current urban form
5 Rules for Edge City 1. More than 20-50K office workers 2. more than 600k sq. ft. or retail space 3. more jobs than bedrooms 4. perceived as one place 5. must have been nothing like a city 30 yrs ago
Smart Growth Planning for greater sustainability - mix land uses, compact build design, range of house opp, walkability, sense of place, preservation of open space, densify exist neigh, public transit, public participation
Sustainable Development Balancing the fulfillment or human needs with the protection of the natural env. so that present and future population's needs can be met - involves env, social & economic components
Hazard Mitigation Planning Actions taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to life and property from nat. hazards - ranges from coastal zone manage to planning for wildfires - includes disaster planning
Adaptation Adjustment of human and natural systems in response to actual or expected effects of climate change
Safe Growth A term for building environments that are safe for current and future generations, protecting buildings. infrastructure and the natural env. from damage
Adequate Public Facilities Ordinance (APFO) allow local gov to deny or delay permits if the exist. services (water, sewer, roads, fire, schools, police) cannot support it - ensures that the new dev does not negatively impact a comm quality of life - burden is placed on developers
Daylighting Practice of placing windows and reflective surfaces so that natural light provides effective illumination during the day - also used to describe the conversion of an enclosed drain sys to a more open and natural system
Green Infrastructure Originated in the US in mid-90s - emphasizes the importance of the natural env in providing clean water, shade, etc
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Phone survey to collect state-level data on the prevalance of behavioral risks among adults - survey asks about smoking, physical activity, etc.
Health Disparities The difference in the incidence of health conditions and diseases among specific population groups EX: low birth weight in low-income areas
Health Impact Assessment Uses quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the health conseq. of a policy, project or prog. where health is not the prim obj - Columbus, OH's health dept does this for development proposals in the city - helps analyze health impacts of dev.
Context-Sensitive Design (CSD) Refers to roadway standards and dev. practices that are flex and sensitive to comm values - key princ 1. balance safety, comm and env goals in proj 2. involve pub early 3. usemixture of people to dev plan 4. apply flex in design 5. inc. aesthetics
New Urbanism Promotes walkable, compact neighborhoods - apply at regional, local and neighborhood levels - @neigh: mix income, walkable, variety or arch styles, well-defined with an edge and a center - transit w/in 5 min walk
Transect Development on a rural to urban continuum, 6-7 phases - New Urbanism planning practice
Global Indications of Instability: Global Warming Temp. worldwide has increase .8-1 degree Rain has increased 1% Sea Level has risen 6-8 inches
Global Indications of Instability: Soil Degradation Rates of erosion are depleting the nutrient base of agriculture
Global Indications of Instability: Deforestation Loss of 1.5 billion acres of forest in 200 years
Global Indications of Instability: Species Extinction North America: 36% fish, 35% amph, 17% mammals, 11% of birds in jeopardy or extinct
10 Principals of New Urbanism 1. walkability 2. connectivity 3. mixed-use & diverse 4. Mixed housing avail 5. Quality architecture 6. Trad. neigh structure 7. increased density 8. green transportation 9. sustainability 10. quality of life
National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act (1977) Required improved standards in construction methods and practices, land use controls, prediction techniques, early-warning systems, coordinated emerg preparedness plans & public education programs
Coastal Zone Management Act (1972) Encouraged states to adopt coastal zone management plans - limited dev. on barrier islands - est the National Estuarine Research Reserve System
National Flood Insurance Act (1968) Led to creation of the National Flood Insurance Program after flood losses in FL and LA in 1965 - req. flood insurance for prop within 100 year flood zones
Coastal Barrier Resources Act (1982) Amended the National Flood Insurance Act to address prob assoc with coastal barrier development - set to protect undeveloped coastal barriers
Disaster Mitigation Act (2000) (DMA2K) Allowed for aid and efforts related to disasters - broadened scope of existing disaster relief programs
LOS A Highest qual of service, free flow - no delays - 0- .35 v/c
LOS B Stable traffic flow - speed becoming slightly restricted - low restriction on maneuverability - no delays - .35-.58
LOS C Stable traffic flow but less freedom to select speed, change lanes or pass - minimal delays - .58-.75 v/c
LOS D Traffic flow becoming unstable - speeds subject to sudden change - passing is difficult - minimal delays - .75-.9 v/c
LOS E Unstable traffic flow - speeds change quickly and maneuverability is low - significant delays - .9-1 v/c
LOS F Heavily congested traffic - demand exceeds capacity and speeds vary greatly - considerable delays - >1 v/c
National Planning Level Can include comprehensive planning, land management, env. planning, etc. Primarily planning for fed land and facilities - also includes international planning for fed. planners EX: Army Corp Planners, Mil Base Planners, US Dept. of State rebuilding Iraq
Multi-State Planning Level Occurs when there are shared interests - common in transportation planning - EX: national hwy sys. - corridor planning - MPOs & COGs at a multi-state level - EX: Tenn Vall Auth & Hoover Dam
State Planning Level Some states do local planning - focus on setting state-level policy and providing tech assistance to local planners EX: Maryland's statewide plan on Smart Growth & Oregon's Growth Management Plan
Regional Planning Level Required for transportation funding from fed gov - Many regions combine to plan - typically housing, econ dev & transportation are regional efforts - New Regionalism (focus on regional planning) EX: ABAG
County Planning Level Varies from state to state - some states it means planning for unincorporated areas - others encompass all comm in area EX: counties in TX don't have zoning auth so minimal zoning is prac
Urban Planning Level Challenges Deteriorating housing stock - neighborhoods in need of revitalization - economic development - downtown revitalization
Suburban Planning Level Challenges Creating distinct places in their community - economic development - maintaining a healthy housing stock
Suburban Poverty Rising at a higher rate than in urban areas - 2012: 16.5 m in suburbs, 13.5 m in cities - Grew 139% since 2000 (50% jump in cities)
Small Town Planning Level Challenges Limited (or no) staff to conduct planning operations
Synoptic/Rational Planning 1900-1950 focused - goal setting, identify policy alternatives, eval of alt, implement preferred alt - Problems: community may disagree
Incremental Planning Lindbloom - Science of Mudd Thru - decision makers are under limits of time, money & expertise - dec makers use a mix of intuition, experience & consultation to make decisions - Problem: doesn't inv public
Transactive Planning Relies on face to face contact w/ public - allows for process of mutual learning - increases pub cntrol on planning processes - plans are evaluated on the effect on people & their cooperation - Problem: cities are big, can't do one on one work
Rocky Mountain Christian Church v. Board of County Commissioners Board denied rezone for megachurch on rural land due to incon. with comp plan - church sued on RFA because a school had recently been approved of sim size & w/similar effects
Gender Facts Relevant to Planning More women over 65 than men Sig wage gap between w&m, in 1999, full time women earned 75.7 cents/dollar to the ave white male single-women headed households are the commonplace women have diff uses of transportation than men & diff safety needs
Feminist Theory vs. Rational Theory FT rejects the notion that theory is value-neutral and in turn rejects the rational model
Social Justice People should be able to realize their full potential in the comm they live - how cities are organized are critical to the ability of people to succeed EX: affordable housing in relation to pub transportation
Design Charette Intensive calaboration effort that brings citizens, stake & staff to developed a detailed design plan for specific areas - effective for quickly dev consensus - typically small groups w/facilitator - need a problem to solve
Nominal Group Technique Decision by vote, every group mem shares thoughts, list is created, participants rank ideas - rankings are discussed (leading to more/less ideas) - solution with the highest ranking is selected
Facilitation Uses a person who does not have a direct stake in the outcome of a meeting to help find consensus in groups that do not agree - typically the facilitator is a volunteer who is resp by both groups (sometimes a prof is hired)
Mediation Third party facilitator to help parties reach a satisfactory agreement - agree typ specifies measurable, achievable & realistic solutions - final agree is usually in writing
Public Hearing Assoc with hearing bodies - allow formal citizen input at the end of a planning process - mandated by law - ineffective at building pub participation & consensus (too late in the game)
Visual Preference Survey Used to assist citizens in evaluating physical images of natural & built environ. - asked to view & eval a wide variety of pictures depicting anything (houses, roads, etc) - scores are used to indicate design preference
Coalition working tog of sev org toward a common goal - 2 types: 1st has a lead org for the coalition that makes decisions 2nd all groups part equally w/decision worked out together by a group of representatives
Consensus Building Begins w/ ID of stakeholders to form a group - attempt to develop an idea for the future - key issues are determined that need to be solved
Homelessness Data approx 800k homeless/night - 2.3-3.5 m/year - 36% families w/children - single homeless adults usually men 31-50 (20-25% mental illness) - supp hous does not decrease prop values or inc crime - 25% spend more than 30% of inc on housing - 1/8 more than 50%
3 C's to Public Participation Coalition building - consensus building - conflict resolution
SARAR (Pub Part) self-esteem, associative strengths, resourcefulness, action planning & responsibility
Appreciative Inquiry Process Systematic process that uses the art & prac of asking questions & building upon narrative comm to surface imagination, innovation & commit to action - req. lots of team members, lots of involvement
Citizen Juries Small group of citizens empanelled to learn about an issue, cross-examine witnesses, & make recommendations - always non-binding w/ no legal standing - method is resource intensive & requires skilled moderator
Coffee Klatches/Kitchen Table Meetings Small meetings w/in neighborhood, usually at someone's home - staff must be polite & attentive - can be costly & labor intensive
Computer-assisted meetings Any sized meeting where part use interactive technology to reg opinions - immediate graphics/results prompt focused discussion - areas of agreement/disagreement easily shown - responses are private - can be expensive dep on size
Deliberative Dialogues Brings people tog to make choices about difficult, complex items where there is a lot of uncertainty about solutions and a high liklihood of people polarizing on the issue - goal is to find where there is common ground - should occur in small groups
Fishbowl Process A meeting where decision makers do their work in a "fishbowl" where the public can openly view their deliberations - can involve public participation by temp joining fishbowl or visual queues of acceptance - allow dec makers to see pub reactions
Revolving Conversations (Samoan Circles) leaderless meeting that stimulates active participation - sit in a circle (or several) - can be used with any number of people but need numerous reporters - issue: dialog may stall
Study Circles Highly participatory process for involving numerous small groups in making a diff in their community - work best if mult groups are working at the same time in diff locations and then share at the end - can be done with large groups
World Cafes Meeting process featuring a series of simultaneous conversations in response to predetermined questions - part change tables during the process and focus on IDing common ground in response to each quesiton
Acres in an Hectaacre 2.47